Mizzou LTC 1100 - Finances (9 pages)

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Finances



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Finances

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Pages:
9
School:
University of Missouri
Course:
Ltc 1100 - Orientation
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Finances 10 15 2014 Poverty in Missouri Based on 3 year average where does Missouri s poverty rate rank in comparison to other states o 42nd out of 50 very poor Threads of Life Race religion country gender age ECONOMICS SES Socioeconomic status Relative standing in the society based on income power background and prestige Levels of SES Beeghley model o Super Rich 9 income of 350 000 o Rich 5 net worth over 1 million largely in home equity o Middle Class 46 40 57 thousand o Working class 40 45 26 40 thousand o Poor 12 Below 26 000 Statistics Poverty prone children are more likely to be in single parent families Poor inner city youths are 7 times more likely to be the victims of child abuse or neglect US child poverty rate is substantially higher than most other major western industrialized nations Children born outside of US have higher chance of being in poverty than those born here Factors that effect schooling Poor nutrition Emotional stress Peer rejection Less parental involvement at school not always by choice Use of casual register of language As free and reduced lunch increases math and English proficiency decreases Types of Resources Financial Emotional Mental Spiritual Physical Relationships Role Models Knowledge of the Hidden Rules unspoken understanding about what to do in certain situations o Register of language o Knowing how to behave in certain circumstances situations Dependent more on other bullets not just financial Registers of language Frozen Formal Consultative Casual Intimate How to help Show them you like and respect them Be available and willing to listen Hold high expectations for performance Provide Encouragement Have them write in casual and translate to formal Teach hidden rules Behavioral Learning 10 15 2014 What is Learning Learning occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individual s knowledge or behavior That change may be deliberate or unintentional Change MUST be brought about by experience Learning Theories Behavioral Learning Definition Explanations of learning that focus on external events such as the cause of changes in observable behavior Assumes the outcome of learning is a change in behavior Important Vocabulary Contiguity Association of two events because of repeated pairing Stimulus Event that activates behavior Response Observable reaction to a stimulus Classical Conditioning Associates of automatic responses with new stimuli Focuses on INVOLUNTARY emotional or psychological responses such as fear or increases in muscle tension salivation or sweating Exploring Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus US Automatically produces a response Unconditioned Response UR Naturally occurring response Conditioned Stimulus CS Stimulus that evokes a response after conditioning Conditioned Response CR Learned response to a previously neutral stimulus EX Test Anxiety Neutral Stimulus Math Test Unconditioned Stimulus Stress Unconditioned Response Anxiety Conditioned Stimulus Math Test Conditioned Response Anxiety Classroom Fear Classroom Fear Operant Conditioning Learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents Consequence Event that follows an action Antecedent Events that precede an action Reinforcement Reinforcer Any consequence that increases the frequency of behaviors Positive Something an individual will seek out Negative Something an individual will try to escape or avoid Punishment Aimed at reducing behaviors by imposing unwanted consequences Can actually be reinforcement Negative side effects Not the reverse of reinforcement Can create emotional side effects Can have different reactions Operant Learning Time Out Most misused and misunderstood strategy Purpose Remove Reinforcement Provides an opportunity for the student to calm down Provides an opportunity for the student to share perceptions of the incident and negotiate change Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Behavior is reinforced every time it occurs Schedules of Reinforcement Intermittent Reinforcement after some but not all responses Can either be fixed predictable or variable unpredictable Interval Based on the amount of time that passes between reinforcement Ratio Based on number of responses between reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Ratio Behavior is reinforced after it has occurred a fixed number of times Variable Ratio Behavior is reinforced around an average requirement Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Interval Reinforcement granted when a behavior occurs after a given period of time Variable Interval Reinforcement granted when a behavior occurs around an average interval Social Cognitive Theory 10 15 2014 Social Cognitive Theory Accepts principles of behavioral learning but also emphasizes cognitive processes Most human behavior is learned by observing the behaviors of others Bandura s Reciprocal Determinism Model of Learning Social Cognitive Theory Learning occurs through modeling observing imitating others observational learning You watch the people in your environment and imitate it Learning through vicarious experience learning from successes failures of others Bandura believes you can learn from other peoples mistakes however the other guy does not believe that Processes of Observational Learning ONE Attention must pay attention to model In general students will pay attention to Models that are o competent o prestige power o behave in gender stereotypical ways o behavior is relevant to observer s situation TWO Retention mentally representing model s actions Processes of Observational Learning 1 Reproduction converting symbolic codes in memory into actions giving feedback 2 Motivation reinforcement incentive Observer Effects Observational learning effect Inhibitory effect reduces performance due to vicarious punishment when you call a students idea stupid the likelihood of others answering the question decreases OR yelling at student for getting something wrong would do the same Disinhibitory effect performance increases after no adverse consequences if you have a rule to raise hand in class and one kid doesn t follow this rule but you don t punish him then everyone else will follow his behavior thinking it is okay Response facilitation effect behavior of model is cue for observers to imitate behavior concerts one person starts clapping others join One person looks at sky others join Social Cognitive Learning Self efficacy how capable someone judges him herself to be


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