Mizzou LTC 1100 - COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY (6 pages)

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COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY



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COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY

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Pages:
6
School:
University of Missouri
Course:
Ltc 1100 - Orientation
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COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY 11 03 2014 Cognitive Learning Theories Focus on acquisition of knowledge and knowledge structures Behavior is the result of learning Focus on changing the learner not the environment INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY Assumptions o People are active participants in the learning process o People get to decide what they put in their memory and learn o You interpret the meaning of things based on previous experience not just on how you say it o We can draw inferences through observation THREE MAIN PROCCESSES o Encoding process of gathering and representing information o Storage process of putting new information in memory o Retrieval remembering previously stored information SHORT TERM Where info is held until its processed Limited capacity 5 9 bits Short duration 20 30 seconds Maintenance rehearsal repeating information over and over Elaborative rehearsal associating information with something you already know MEMORY Cue Dependent Forgetting Caused by a lack of retrieval cues Interference Theory Old info gets in the way of new information or vice versa Decay Theory Passage of time allows memory trace to disintegrate LONG TERM Declarative memory something is a fact you know it o Semantic memory general knowledge about world o Episodic memory information ties to a particular time and place Procedural memory how to do things Large capacity Long Term Declarative Procedural Episodic and Sematic STORING INFORMATION Elaboration adding to newly acquired information by connecting it to existing knowledge Organization ordered and logical networks of relations Context physical emotional backdrop associated with an event Factors Affecting Retrieval Frequently used information is retrieved more easily Information learned to mastery and then overlearned is easier to retrieve once you ve learned it practice over and over and over Information learned meaningfully is retrieved more easily relate it to them that makes it meaningful Retrieved more easily when one has a retrieval cue o Mnemonics can help when knowledge is limited Wait time when you ask students questions remember to allow them to process the question and then retrieve the answer Metacognition Thinking about thinking Understanding your own learning Occurs in working memory Two types o Knowing your abilities knowing your cognition knowing what to do o Monitoring and regulating cognition activities you should engage yourself in while performing cognitive task doing it BIG PICTURE Learners are actively involved in learning To learn and remember something learners must give it undivided attention Meaningful leanring is usually more effective than role larning Repetition over long run has greater benefits than repetition in the short run Long term memory has as much capacity as learners could ever need Constructivism 11 03 2014 Constructivism Term emphasizes the learners contribution to meaning and learning through both individual and social activity Two forms physiological individual and social Some people believe in Radical Constructivism o No individuals viewpoint thus constructed should be viewed as less correct than others so 2 2 can equal 5 Learners construct their own understanding o Instead of direct instruction you would always make up a project to have students figure out and construct their own knowledge through group learning The teacher simply guides them to their own knowledge New learning depends on current understanding o Stresses prior knowledge Learning is facilitated by social interaction o Emphasizes the social interaction learning communities encourage students to take their own responsibility when it comes to their own learning and others learning Meaningful learning occurs within authentic learning tasks o Simulate the real world Transfer The influence of previously learned material on new material o Positive learned skill or knowledge helps with learning or solving a new problem Near transfer occurs when situations are similar Far transfer transfer of learning to a situation that is very different from the one in which initial learning took place geometry to architecture o Negative earlier information skills interfered with new learning or problem solving o Promote Transfer Teach skills thoroughly Provide opportunities for students to apply knowledge Give practice applying skills or ideas in a variety of situations Alert students to circumstances of negative transfer Help students understand why something is being taught and is applicable Social Constructivism Emphasizes the social contexts of learning and that knowledge is mutually built and constructed Situated cognition thinking is located situated in social and physical contexts Scaffolding changing the level of support over the course of a teaching session Cognitive apprenticeship expert stretches and supports a novices understanding of and use of the cultures skills Tutoring involved a cognitive apprenticeship between an expert and a novice o Peer tutoring Brain Based 11 03 2014 Brain Based Theory Not an actual theory Looks biochemistry of brain and how brain functions Matches learning settings and instruction to what is known about how the brain work Uses what is known about memory to focus instruction toward meaningful learning Physical changes during learning New dendrites are formed Connections increase complexity Firings of the same neurons create stronger connections Parts of the Brain Hippocampus associated with declarative memories Amygdala associated with unconscious behavioral emotional procedural memories Thalamus associated with transmission of sensory information to the cerebral cortex Optimal Learning Occurs In environments that are enriched and safe When there is an emotional connection When there is active engagement Connections are made to previously stored information


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