ECU SOCI 3225 - Final Exam Study Guide (11 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Final SG

Study Guide
East Carolina University
Soci 3225 - Urban Sociology
Urban Sociology Documents
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SOCI 3225 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide The Emergence of Scientific Medicine The notion that disease illness are the cause and effect result of observable patterns or relationships among events or phenomena Themes over time 1 2 SUPERNATURAL VS SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS OF DISEASE ALTERNATIVE VS ACCEPTED a Which is which depends upon the prevailing view of the times 3 PREVENTIVE ORIENTATION VS CURATIVE 4 Availability of surplus energy or whether survival alone consumes much of the available human energy leaving little for experimentation or speculation luxuries a Surplus energy follows a food surplus so available resources tied to physical location environmental challenges become important for human cultural evolution Early Humans Early writings didn t exist inferences about health prior to 4000 BC are based upon bone teeth evidence to describe nutrition health and disease patterns o Supernatural Beliefs Spirits sorcerers the notion of balance Social control among the Inuit people not conforming endangered the group by inviting the wrath of the gods o Restore balance through prayer exorcism magic bloodletting drilling holes in of skull to let spirits out Shamans early practitioners who combined herbalism curing ceremonies including ritualistic dances ceremonies Egyptians Physicians evolved into specialists Code of Hammurabi about 1750 BC described the role of physicians Ebers Papyrus document summarizing knowledge offered diagnostic tips prognoses and therapies including 800 different prescriptions Greeks A civilization of advanced and competing city states Religion and health were linked Apollo sun god the god of health medicine Hippocrates Greek physician 460 377 BC noted for 1 Natural rather than supernatural explanations for disease a Symptoms are reactions of the body to disease b Job of physician is to assist the natural forces of the body in healing c Health is mental and physiological balance d Natural elements of the earth are air earth fire and water i The body s elements are blood phlem yellow bile and black bile and the person is healthy when these elements or humors are in balance 2 70 books papers and essays which experimenter kept his notes describing the results of treatments 3 Hippocratic Oath taught compassion person not to blame ethical treatment no abortion facilitating suicide etc Greeks were generally tolerant of multiple approached to health and medicine including religious magical and empirical or evidence based Romans 750 BC Rome dates to about Militaristic society Overlapped somewhat with the Greeks Some early Roman physicians were Greek imports Early Roman cities had relatively large number of people living together Credited for attention to clean water supplies aquaducts central sewer systems baths street cleaning early hospitals Galen Father of experimental physiology o he dissected monkeys pigs o Studied skeletons of criminals o Concluded that pneuma or vital spirits circulated throughout the body Western Roman Empire ended in 476 a d with tribal conquest of Europe which led to scattered smaller fiefdoms Medieval Era 500 A D through 1500 Medicine based in monasteries Disease illness tested faith in God in the church Illnesses are God s punishment possession by the devil or result of witchcraf Saints for different body parts prayed to them for cure Any approach other than faith based was blasphemous Second part of Medieval Era from 1130 to around 1500 movement away from Monastic medicine disrupted monastic separatism to Scholastic medicine Medicine responsibility of the Secular concerned with religious intervention in everyday matters clergy in early universities Europe becoming over populated movement of people into cities Epidemics age waves of Bubonic Plague mid 1300 s that killed about 43 million people in 20 years early European hospitals as poor houses Renaissance 1400 1500 s Era of Humanism or emphasis on individual dignity importance of the present life not aferlife individual freedom o Some of Galen s earlier notions pneuma or the circulation of vital spirits in the body The humoral theory of disease was attacked Medicine moved towards specialization o Physicians med school graduates who were gentleman provided medical consultation for wealthy patients o Surgeons lower status people who treated external complaints broken bones did minor surgery o Barber Surgeons performed major surgery and blood letting o Apothecaries dispensed herbs other products prescribed by physicians o Generally an equal chance of getting better or getting worse depending upon the wealth of the persons being treated o Generally viewed as mid level occupations families still the general source of care for most people Seventeenth Century 1600 s Time of exploration prompted by the search for wealth to finance European wars Spanish conquest of Latin America Mexico to relieve population pressure Age of modern science the need for better mechanisms to extract foreign resources Bacon Descartes dominant scientist philosophers mind to religion body to science split William Harvey Englishman Who confirmed the circulation of blood in the body and the role of the heart as the pump cardiac valves Eighteenth Century 1700 s Morgagni 1682 1771 notion that diseases are connected to particular organs anatomical origins of disease o Saw initial concern about public health problems unsanitary conditions in industry prisons cities and hospitals Early vaccination against smallpox tested developed Nineteenth Century 1800 s Industrial revolution iron and textile industries Rapid urbanization concentration of large numbers of people in small spaces Medicine began to be centered in hospitals from the sickbed earlier Rudolf Virchow s Discovery of the Cell Germ Theory of Disease Louis Pasteur 1877 linked specific bacteria to anthrax cholera Surgical progress Pain suppressants anesthesia ability to prevent wound infections through asepsis or surgical cleanliness credited to Lister s an Englishman work with carbolic acid in 1865 Pasteur demonstrated the presence of bacteria in 1860 discovered several viral connections to conditions strep throat or streptococcus around 1880 American Medicine Colonials brought diseases to Native Americans with no immunity measles smallpox decimated populations Mandans extinct Few trained physicians that were trained in Europe First comprehensive hospital Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia built in 1751 First real medical school College of Philadelphia in 1765 o

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