UT Arlington BIOL BIOL 3427 - Final Exam Study Guide (75 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


This study guide outlines possible exam questions for the final exam.

Study Guide
University of Texas at Arlington
Biol Biol 3427 - Plant Science
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BIOL 3427 Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 1 19 Lecture 1 The shoot apical meristem is sometimes protected by young leaves while the root apical meristem is protected by The root cap What is phytoremediation It is the process of cleaning up polluted environments to stimulate the growth of plants to deter their pests to control weeds in crops and to form hybrids between plants with more precision than ever before What is genetic engineering Transferring genes from a virus a bacterium or an animal or a particular plant into an entirely different species of plant in order to produce specific desirable characteristics What are transgenic plants They are plants that contain genes from an entirely different species and they exhibit new and extraordinary properties Lecture 2 What are the major differences between Monocots and Eudicots What is the difference between a Monocot and a Eudicot A Monocot has more than 90 000 species and include familiar plants such as grasses lilies irises orchids A monocot has parallel leaf venation one cotyledon scattered primary vascular bundles rare secondary growth and their flower parts are in threes On the other hand Eudicots have greater than 200 000 species with their flower parts usually in fours or fives two cotyledons netlike leaf venation and have secondary growth commonly present Examples of Eudicots include more trees and shrubs What is the mode of nutrition of the phylum Anthlophyta Phylum Anthlophyta are free living but a few parasitic and myco heterotrophic plants lack chlorophyll exist What is a determinate shoot A determinate shoot is a shoot with growth of a limited duration that bears sporophylls which are sporangium bearing leaves What is the definitive structure of a flower The definitive structure of the flower consists of the carpel or the vessel The carpel contains ovules which develop into seeds after fertilization while the carpel itself develops into the fruit wall Lecture 3 August 28th What are some examples of a unique characteristic of an Angiosperm Some examples include that they have flowers closed carpels double fertilization endosperm formation 3 nucleate micro gametophyte 8 nucleate micro gametophyte stamens 2 pairs of pollen sacs and phloem sieve tubes and companion cells They also derived from one single common ancestor are seed plants and have pollen with single aperture What is the ancestral history of an angiosperm The ancestral history is that they are ancestral to the gymnosperms What are characteristics of magnoliids Some examples are magnolias laurel pepper pipeune and spicebush The leaves contain oil cells which give rise to spices such as nutmeg cinnamon pepper bay leaves and cinnamon What are basal Angiospores Basal Angiospores are small isolated families that arose prior to the monocot eudicot magnoliid split Some examples include the waterlillies which are fragrant and aquatic and the amborellacease which are found in an island off the coast of Australia The air pockets in the stem help them stay up Who were the first evolutionary angiosperm fossils The Archaefructus were the first angiosperm fossils found 125 million years ago where the seeds were enclosed in carpels fruits and stood in shallow water and no sepals or petals were found The perianth also did not have distinct sepals or petals What is the function of a petal They are modified leaves sepals specialized for attracting pollinators The petals fuse to form a tube What is the evolutionary adaptation of a stamen Stamens are diverse woody mangolias and they are broad colorful and scented Other flowers are fleshy Flowers today are filamentous where as in the past they used to be thick and broad The fusion of sepals and stamens has resulted in the loss of fertile function What is the purpose of the pollination of bees Bees are core pollinators and the flowers are usually blue yellow or showy petals They also drink nectar and collect pollen to bring back to the hive What is the evolutionary purpose of a butterfly Butterlfies are active during the day have a landing platform and are continuously getting nectar What kind of pollinators are the birds and bats In general birds and bats have a poor sense of smell They are also red attracted odorless and have lots of nectar In general bats are nocturnal and are attracted to dull colored flowers white They are open at night and have a strong fruit like odor or musty scent What is the reason for the evolutionary adaptations of flowers Flowers have evolved the way they have because of pollinators In evolutionary history early seed plants were wind pollinated by chance however animal pollinated plants were more successful What are characteristics of wind pollinated plants Some examples of wind pollinated plants include grass oaks and birches They also have no nectar are dull have no scent Lecture 4 September 2nd In which region did the domestication of wheat originate The domestication of wheat originated in the Fertile Crescent in locations such as Iran Iraq Syria Turkey Lebanon Jordan and Israel In which region did the domestication of millet and rice come from later cultivated soybeans The domestication of rice originated from China In which region did the domestication of rice legumes and vegetables originate later mango citrus and bananas The domestication of these crops originated from tropical Asia In which region did the domestication of coffee and cotton originate The domestication of coffee and cotton originated from Africa In which region did the domestication of Maize corn peppers and tomatoes originate These crops originated from Mexico Did the domestication of animals follow plant domestication True In which region did the domestication of dogs wolves originate The domestication of dogs wolves originated from the Middle East What are two of the most important beverages in the world Coffee and Tea are one of the most important beverages in the world due to caffeine in take What are some of the most important spices from the tropics of Asia Cinnamon Black pepper cloves ginger cardamom nutmeg and mace are some of the most important spices Which one of the following spices has a 2000 Ib price tag and why Saffron has one of the most expensive prices due to the dried styles and stigmas which have to be hand cultivated Lecture 5 September 4th What is the primary source of chemical energy in plants and animals Glucose What is an example of a disaccharide An example of a disaccharide is sucrose which is

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