TAMU BIOL 213 - Final Exam Study Guide (42 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


The review of material that we've covered since the last exam is more detailed than the rest of the review, which is based mostly on the 'be able to's.

Study Guide
Texas A&M University
Biol 213 - Molecular Cell Biol
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Biol 213 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide This is a chronological review The review of the material that was covered most recently is near the end labeled the most recent material that we have not yet been tested on and is more detailed The rest of the review that s over the first 3 exams is not as detailed it s based mostly only on the be able to s EXAM 1 MATERIAL LECTURE 1 What are the three central tenets of the cell theory Explain them 1 All organisms are composed of one or more cells 2 The cell is the structural unit of life it s the smallest living thing 3 Cells can only arise by division from preexisting cells there s no such thing as spontaneous generation Describe Pasteur s experiment Draw it He had two flasks of living stuff He boiled both to kill everything One flask had a straight neck so that it was open to the environment the other had a curved neck so that it was closed to the environment and nothing could get in He incubated both flasks The one with the straight neck had stuff growing in it the one with the curved neck did not This proved that spontaneous generation did not exist because nothing spontaneously generated in the flask closed to the environment What would have happened in his experiment if cells didn t have to come from other cells Growth would have been observed in the flask with the curved neck What s the difference between pasteurization and sterilization Pasteurization is when you heat a solution so that you only kill some of the stuff in it Sterilization is when you heat a solution so that you kill everything in it LECTURE 2 Explain ionic bonds covalent bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions and van der Waals attractions Ionic bonds occur when one atom gives its electrons to another atom Covalent bonds are when two atoms share electrons Hydrogen bonds are when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to an electronegative atom like oxygen or nitrogen is attracted to another electronegative atom like oxygen or nitrogen Hydrophobic interactions are when hydrophobic regions of molecules bunch together in aqueous solutions so that they re not touching the water Van der Waals attractions are like forced dipoles When two molecules get close together the electrons shift so that each side has a slightly positive and slightly negative side The positive side of one molecule attracts the negative side of the other Why are covalent bonds critical to biology They are the strongest when it comes to a cell because it has an aqueous interior Even though ionic bonds are technically the strongest they break in aqueous solutions so they re pretty much useless in a cell What are the unique properties of water How do these make water important High boiling point this allows for evaporative cooling It s caused by all of the hydrogen bonds that absorb a lot of heat before they break High specific heat water absorbs a lot of heat before it evaporates Important in climate control Liquid at room temperature Lower density as a solid due to the lattice structure of ice This insulates large frozen bodies of water allowing creatures to live in the water and not die when it freezes High surface tension used in capillary action in plants LECTURE 3 Know how to calculate the pH of a solution if you re given the concentration of a strong acid or base Strong acids and bases dissociate completely in water so the concentration of acid or base concentration of H or OH pH log H pOH log OH pH 14 pOH If you re given the molecular weight of a substance how would you calculate the amount of the substance you need to make a solution with a desired molarity You multiply the molecular weight by the desired molarity This gets rid of the moles unit g mol x mol L g L Then you multiply by the desired volume in liters This gets rid of the liters unit g L x L g You re now left with grams of the substance you need to make a solution with the desired molarity What is a buffer Why are they important to biology A buffer is a conjugate acid and base that regulate the pH of a solution The conjugate acid donates H ions when the solution is too basic and the conjugate base takes up H ions when the solution is too acidic They are important to biology because they regulate the pH within the organism cell Organisms cells are very sensitive to pH change What are the common functional groups of biology Draw them What are the four major classes of biological molecules and what are their building blocks Building block monomer macromolecule Sugars Polysaccharides Fatty acids glycerol chains Lipids Amino acids Proteins Nucleotides Nucleic acids What are the roles for each of the macromolecules Polysaccharides store chemical energy glycogen and starch and provide structural support cellulose Lipids store chemical energy triacylglycerols and provide structure as phospholipids in the cell membrane Triacylglycerols are good for storing energy because they are highly reduced Even more so than glucose Proteins enzymatic signaling structural transporters pumps Nucleic acids provide energy ATP GTP and store genetic information DNA and RNA Know how to draw a condensation and hydrolysis reaction between two molecules These occur in every macromolecule Describe the two kinds of glucose and where to find them There is glucose and glucose The two differ in the position of the H and OH of the 1st carbon glucose makes up glycogen and starch and forms helices glucose makes up cellulose and stacks in sheets Hydrogen bonds form between the glucose molecules making the structure very strong They can be parallel or antiparallel What is the basic structure of a lipid Describe the difference between saturated and unsaturated Lipids are composed of fatty acids and a glycerol chain Triacylglycerols are composed of 3 fatty acids while phospholipids only have 2 Saturated lipids Unsaturated lipids Fatty acid chains have the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons Fatty acid chains don t have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms causing some of the carbon atoms to form double bonds with other carbon atoms Fatty acid chains are straight and compact Fatty acid chains have kinks as a result of the double bonds and have more space between the chains Solid at room temperature because of Liquid at room temperature because of More commonly found in animals More commonly found in plants Describe the lipid found in a cell membrane Phospholipids are similar to triacylcglycerols except that they have had one fatty acid chain replaced with a

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