UNC-Chapel Hill PSYC 101 - psychology-101-social-fall-2014-student-version (44 pages)

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psychology-101-social-fall-2014-student-version



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psychology-101-social-fall-2014-student-version

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Pages:
44
School:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Course:
Psyc 101 - General Psychology
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Social Psychology Topics Prejudice discrimination and diversity Gender Self and social identity Group behavior Prosocial behavior Social influence attitudes and social cognition Interpersonal relations Close relationships Cultural psychology Emotions And more because no one not even the National Science Foundation can argue that falling in love is a science Senator William Proxmire Harris 1978 Attribution How do we explain behavior Our own behavior The behavior of others Locus of cause of behavior Fritz Heider Internal vs External Attributions Locus of cause of behavior External vs Internal Stability of causes permanence Unstable Stable Internal Effort Mood Fatigue Ability Intelligence Externa l Luck Chance Opportunity Task Difficulty Attributions Bias The fundamental attribution error Actor observer bias Self serving bias Gender bias Culture Attributions Individualism vs Collectivism Fundamental attribution error Self serving bias Self effacing bias Attraction Physical attractiveness Similarity Proximity Physical distance vs functional distance Mere exposure Culture ethnic differences and personal space Reciprocity Attraction Attribution of arousal Halo effect Advertising Reverse halo effect Love Passionate Companionate Intimacy Commitment complete absorption in another person includes sexual feeling and agony and ecstasy warm trusting tolerant affection for another person whoee life is intertwined with your own Love Passionate and Companionate love Level Passionate Companionate Intimacy Commitment Commitment Intimacy Passion Time Attraction Evolutionary Perspective Physical attractiveness as an indicator of reproductive potential Gender differences in mate preference Attitudes What is an attitude Evaluations of a person place thing or event Can be negative or positive Components of Attitudes Affect Affect emotions Behavior predispositions to act Attitudes Cogniti on Behavi or Cognition beliefs and ideas schema Attitude Dimensions Strength Various viewpoints In general stronger the attitude the less likely it is to change Accessibility Time it takes to come to mind Highly accessible attitudes come to mind quickly Correlated with strength Stronger higher accessibility Ambivalence Attitude is not completely positive or completely negative Highly ambivalent attitudes are malleable Types of Attitudes Explicit attitudes sometimes referred to as controlled attitudes conscious or overt attitudes Example political viewpoint Implicit attitudes sometimes referred to as automatic attitudes unconscious or covert attitudes Example prejudice Implicit Attitudes Of particular interest since they may unconsciously influence one s behavior How are they tested IAT Implicit Association Test example given in next lecture and in the book And more Attitude change Attitude change may be referred to as persuasion or influence Persuasion is a broad term and can refer to the influence or change in someone s attitudes beliefs intentions or behaviors Theories of Attitude Formation Change Learning Theory Dissonance Theory Cognitive Dissonance Elaboration Likelihood Model explained in the book Learning Theory Parents Peers Media Culture Learning Theory Evaluative conditioning Transfer the emotion from an US to a new CS Used by marketers advertisements and commercials Operant condition Stating an opinion and reactions from others reinforces or weaken attitude Observational learning Exposure to viewpoints may influence your own attitudes family friends teachers etc Cognitive Dissonance Occurs in one of two instances a person has at least two beliefs ideas values or attitudes that are inconsistent a person is presented with information that is inconsistent with their current beliefs ideas values or attitudes May lead to People to change their belief or attitude Change the inconsistent cognition Justify their behavior by changing or adding to their knowledge base new cognition Ignore or deny it Example of Cognitive Dissonance What else is Social psychology What else is it As previously mentioned social psychology Examines how people s thoughts feelings and behaviors are influenced by other people real imagined implied The book focuses on social behavior but important factors of this include social perception and social interaction Social psychologists examine Already discussed attributions attraction attitudes Also examines person perception conformity and obedience group behavior motivation altruism decision making emotions morality self regulation communication social cognition self concept Difference between sociology and social psychology Sociology more broad level institutions and culture influences of behavior Social Psychology more specific and situational based The two are similar but differ in how they examine behavior and at what level Specific focus of two of your TA s work is EMOTIONS What is an emotion Emotions Background Theories Books often give a vague definition Something about consciousness physiology expression behavior 4 different theories of emotions different than the ones in the book Basic Appraisal Psychological Constructionism Social Constructionism Emotions Background Theories Books often give a vague definition Something about consciousness physiology expression behavior 4 different theories of emotions different than the ones in the book Basic Psychological Constructionism Basic Stimulus Event Emotion Basic Fear Psychological Constructionism Core Affect Stimulus Event Emotion Conceptual knowledge Psychological Constructionism Core Affect Fear Conceptual knowledge Emotion Research What is it Different ways to examine emotions Genetics Brain mechanisms Person individual levels Social interactions Emotion Research Why is it important Emotions drive a lot of actions and behaviors in daily life Gender differences Psychopathology Cultural differences Relationships Social interactions Positive psychology mindfulness happiness Morality Developmental children Genetics Health Decision making Emotion regulation Education Physiology And more Holly s Research Broadly in my research I examine the role of language on emotions emotion concepts and perceptions and emotion regulation Cultural Differences There are words that do not exist in other languages and cultures for traits things actions and emotions Examples Gigil kilig Kizginlik Schadenfreud Emotion Regulation Self Talk I vs Name Self conscious Affect Shame If only I weren t Guilt If only I hadn t Shame and guilt proneness Outcomes Shaming


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