UNC-Chapel Hill PSYC 101 - psychology-101-psy-disorders-fall-2014-student version (61 pages)

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psychology-101-psy-disorders-fall-2014-student version



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psychology-101-psy-disorders-fall-2014-student version

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Pages:
61
School:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Course:
Psyc 101 - General Psychology
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Psychology 101 David L Penn Ph D Overview and general terms Prevalence Point prevalence How common a mental illness is over a one year period Life time prevalence What percentage of ppl are diagnosed with illness at some point in their lives How common is menatl illness Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey 2005 Etiology what is the cause of something Prognosis what is the long term outcome Ego syntonic versus symptoms of mental illness are part of who you are you don t see them as outside yourself They don t view them as wrong ex someone with a personality disorder ego dystonic you have symptoms of a mental illness but recognize the symptoms as not part of who you are ex you start smoking and then start hearing voices you weren t always like that 1 Year Prevalence Rates Disorder ECA NCS R Narrow Mood 9 5 9 5 5 1 Anxiety 12 6 18 1 11 8 Schiz 1 1 1 0 Alcohol 9 5 3 1 6 0 Any Disorder 28 1 26 2 18 5 Gender Differences from NCS Study Females have higher Males have higher rates of Depression 2x Anxiety 3x Somatization disorders rates of Alcohol Substance abuse 4x usually with alcohol Antisocial Personality disorder Why do you think these gender differences exist Defining mental disorders Cluster of symptoms and longevity of symptoms Functional behavioral problems ex are you starting to perform poorly in your daily roles Perspectives Medical Behavioral Socio cultural Cognitive cognitive behavioral Diathesis stress Cognition Belief Event Antecedent Emotion Consequence The Basic Cognitive Principle People are upset not because of events or situations which occur but by the meaning that people give to events or situations When the meaning is negative negative emotions result Beck 1976 56 Fig131 Precursors Diathesis Genetic factors Stress Outcome Poor selfunderstanding Brain disease Disorder e g schizophrenia Vulnerability Early learning experiences Stressful family dynamics Bad family dynamics Social stresses Why do we diagnose What s the point Treatment Research Prediction Patients and their Families What is the DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Official manual for diagnosing mental disorders in the US outlines criteria to meet to be diagnosed with each disorder Published by American Psychiatric Association Lists approximately 400 disorders Current edition DSM V May 2013 DSM IV still in use Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV Axis I Clinical Disorders Axis II Personality Disorders Axis III Physical medical problems Axis IV Psychosocial environmental problems Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning Evolution of the DSM Has gotten longer more diagnoses in each edition More specific criteria but still imperfect DSM IV is what our textbook uses is old news now DSM IV was multiaxial DSM V DSM 5 changes Format Disorders some highlights multiple changes DSM Expansion Diagnoses 400 365 Number of Diagnoses 350 292 300 265 250 200 150 182 106 100 50 0 I 1952 II 1968 III 1980 III R 1987 Edition of the DSM IV 1994 Pros of the DSM Cons of the DSM Compassion Fatigue Here I was all this time worrying that maybe I m a selfish person and now it turns out I ve been suffering from compassion fatigue Comorbidity from the NCS R Study Number of Disorders of Sample 1 55 2 22 3 23 Overlap of symptoms Major Depressive Disorder MDD 5 or more of the following over 2 weeks Overlap of symptoms Generalized Anxiety Disorder Excessive anxiety occurring more days than not for 6 months Difficult to control worry The worry is associated with 3 or more of following symptoms Restlessness Irritability Keyed up on edge Muscle tension Easily fatigued Sleep disturbance Difficulty concentrating Anxiety disorders Most include irrational fear and avoidance Types Specific phobia Social anxiety disorder GAD Agoraphobia Panic disorder Panic Attack Symptoms Emotion intense fear Physiological components Heartbeat changes Chest pain or discomfort Sweating Nausea or abdominal distress Trembling shaking Dizzy lightheaded faint Shortness of breath Chills or hot flushes Feeling of choking Parasthesias Cognitive components Fear of losing control or going crazy Fear of dying Derealization or depersonalization Trauma and stress related disorders Formerly part of the anxiety disorders in DSM IV PTSD Obsessive compulsive and related disorders OCD Hoarding disorder Body Dysmorphia Disorder BDD OCD symptoms Obsessions Compulsions Obsessive Compulsive Disorder General types of obsessions General types of compulsions Hoarding disorder Moved from being a subtype of OCD to its own diagnosis in DSM 5 Obsessive compulsive and related disorders Body dysmorphic disorder Formerly part of somatoform disorders in DSM IV Body Dysmorphic Disorder BDD can also have BDD by proxy Etiology of anxiety disorders Genetics concordance rate Cognitive factors Anxiety sensitivity Preparedness Conditioning Mowrer s two factor theory Personality neuroticism Major life stressors Figure 13 3 Twin studies of anxiety disorders Figure 13 5 Cognitive factors in anxiety disorders Stroop test Interference to naming colors also occurs when the words involve some kind of threat Social phobia lonely Panic doctor hospital doctor breathe OCD germs Paranoia follow Cognitive Model PANIC Event trigger Cognition threat Emotion fear Physiology adrenaline Cognition catastrophic interpretation Figure 13 4 Conditioning as an explanation for phobias Mood disorders Major depression disorder and persistent depressive disorder formerly dysthymia Bipolar disorder Major Depressive Disorder At least 2 weeks most of the day nearly every day Symptoms 5 or more for MDD Depressed mood Loss of interest pleasure Change in appetite usually Change in sleep usually Change in psychomotor activity agitation or retardation Fatigue loss of energy Worthlessness excessive inappropriate guilt Decreased ability to concentrate think indecisiveness Thoughts of death Distress Impairment Manic Episode Presence of abnormally elevated expansive or irritable mood for at least one week 3 or more of the following criteria must be met Inflated self esteem grandiosity Decreased need for sleep Pressured speech Flight of ideas Distractibility Increase in goal directed activity or psychomotor agitation Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences May be manifest only as a manic state or alternate with periods of depression Psychosis can occur Not attributed to a substance Mood disorders Etiology Genetics Neurotransmitters Cognitive biases


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