UNC-Chapel Hill PSYC 101 - psychology-101 3 (61 pages)

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psychology-101 3



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psychology-101 3

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Pages:
61
School:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Course:
Psyc 101 - General Psychology
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Psychology 101 David L Penn Ph D Overview and general terms Prevalence Point prevalence How common a mental illness is over a one year period Life time prevalence What percentage of ppl are diagnosed with illness at some point in their lives How common is menatl illness Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey 2005 Etiology what is the cause of something Prognosis what is the long term outcome Ego syntonic versus symptoms of mental illness are part of who you are you don t see them as outside yourself They don t view them as wrong ex someone with a personality disorder ego dystonic you have symptoms of a mental illness but recognize the symptoms as not part of who you are ex you start smoking and then start hearing voices you weren t always like that 1 Year Prevalence Rates Disorder ECA NCS R Narrow Mood 9 5 9 5 5 1 Anxiety 12 6 18 1 11 8 Schiz 1 1 1 0 Alcohol 9 5 3 1 6 0 Any Disorder 28 1 26 2 18 5 Gender Differences from NCS Study Females have higher Males have higher rates of Depression 2x Anxiety 3x Somatization disorders rates of Alcohol Substance abuse 4x usually with alcohol Antisocial Personality disorder Why do you think these gender differences exist Defining mental disorders Cluster of symptoms and longevity of symptoms Functional behavioral problems ex are you starting to perform poorly in your daily roles Perspectives Medical psychological disorders have some sort of biological origin biological factors make a significant contribution to understanding biological disorders Reductionism taking something broad Behavioral psyco disorders are result of learning or conditioning ex traumatic experience can create phobias Socio cultural certain disorders you might expect to see across all cultures Cultural general and cultural specific Ex Ataques de Nervios Cognitive cognitive behavioral Diathesis stress Cognition Belief Event Antecedent Emotion Consequence The Basic Cognitive Principle People are upset not because of events or situations which occur but by the meaning that people give to events or situations When the meaning is negative negative emotions result Beck 1976 56 Diathesis stress Fig131 Precursors Diathesis Genetic factors Stress Outcome Poor selfunderstanding Brain disease Disorder e g schizophrenia Vulnerability Early learning experiences Stressful family dynamics Bad family dynamics Social stresses Why do we diagnose What s the point Treatment can t pick without diagnosis Medication Therapy Insurance coverage sometimes need diagnosis in order for coverage Research you have people who belong in the same group Prediction you can derive risk factors have a sense of prognosis Patients and their Families comforting to patient when there is a name associated with symptoms What is the DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Official manual for diagnosing mental disorders in the US outlines criteria to meet to be diagnosed with each disorder Published by American Psychiatric Association Lists approximately 400 disorders Current edition DSM V May 2013 DSM IV still in use Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV still being used but not most recent version Axis I Clinical Disorders everything but personality disorders Axis II Personality Disorders dis You think the person has had their whole life extreme maladaptive personality styles ego syntonic vocab from before ex cereal killers Clip about Bundy antisocial characteristics cereal killer Axis III Physical medical problems factoring in medical factors Axis IV Psychosocial environmental problems what kind of current stressor are present in their life Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning numerical rating 0100 Evolution of the DSM Has gotten longer more diagnoses in each edition More specific criteria but still imperfect DSM IV is what our textbook uses is old news now DSM IV was multiaxial DSM V DSM 5 changes Format Multiaxial system removed Dimensional assessment introduced Reorganization of the disorders Disorders some highlights multiple changes DSM Expansion Diagnoses 400 365 Number of Diagnoses 350 292 300 265 250 200 150 182 106 100 50 0 I 1952 II 1968 III 1980 III R 1987 Edition of the DSM IV 1994 Pros of the DSM Cons of the DSM Overpathologizes are we putting a label on normal behavior Overlap of symptoms high levels of Comorbidity multiple disorders and misdiagnosis Labeling individuals e g Rosenhan 1973 stigmatisms Clip me myself and irene pairing mental illness with aggression Diagnostic criteria for various disorders change each edition but mental disorders arguably don t Implications Compassion Fatigue Here I was all this time worrying that maybe I m a selfish person and now it turns out I ve been suffering from compassion fatigue Comorbidity from the NCS R Study Number of Disorders of Sample 1 55 2 22 3 23 Overlap of symptoms Major Depressive Disorder MDD 5 or more of the following over 2 weeks Overlap of symptoms Generalized Anxiety Disorder Excessive anxiety occurring more days than not for 6 months Difficult to control worry The worry is associated with 3 or more of following symptoms Restlessness Irritability Keyed up on edge Muscle tension Easily fatigued Sleep disturbance Difficulty concentrating Anxiety disorders Most include irrational fear and avoidance Types Specific phobia being afraid of very specific situations events of objects not social EX fear of spiders heights Culuro phobia fear of clowns Social anxiety disorder ppl that specific types of fears in social situations EX public speaking meeting people fear of negative evaluation Clip girl Australian diagnosed at 14 and disorder is progressively getting worse GAD generalized anxiety disorder free floating anxiety always worried but no serious reason less avoidance Agoraphobia ppl that are afraid of being in places where escape is difficult afraid of being in public places Panic disorder Panic Attack Symptoms Emotion intense fear Physiological components Heartbeat changes Chest pain or discomfort Sweating Nausea or abdominal distress Trembling shaking Dizzy lightheaded faint Shortness of breath Chills or hot flushes Feeling of choking Parasthesias Cognitive components Fear of losing control or going crazy Fear of dying Derealization or depersonalization Trauma and stress related disorders Formerly part of the anxiety disorders in DSM IV PTSD Obsessive compulsive and related disorders OCD Hoarding disorder Body Dysmorphia Disorder BDD OCD symptoms Obsessions Compulsions Obsessive Compulsive Disorder General types of


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