TAMU BIOL 112 - Final Exam Study Guide (14 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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chapter 34 and cumulative study advice


Pages:
14
Type:
Study Guide
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Biol 112 - Introductory Biology Ii
Introductory Biology Ii Documents

Unformatted text preview:

BIOL 112 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 34 39 Study previous tests for the earlier material Some questions will come straight from previous exams Lecture 34 November 21 Ancestral deuterostome echinoderms and chordates sister taxa Chordate characteristics always present in embryos not always in adults Notochord flexible dorsal rod Endoskeleton works with muscles Dorsal hollow nerve chord tube forms from folded ectoderm above the notochord Pharyngeal slits Clefts Ancestral use for filter feeding and gas exchange Sea mouth pharynx slits sea Muscular post anal tail Multiple muscle segments for undulating locomotion Invertebrates Cephalochordata lancelets All key chordate features in adults Burrows for suspension feeding Urochordata tunicates sea squirts Highly developed sessile adults Suspension feeders with pharyngeal slits Tough cellulose tunic Only adult chordate characteristic is pharynx with slits larval stage has all characteristics Incurrent and excurrent siphons Vertebrates Vertebrae of cartilage or bone Encloses dorsal verve chord spinal chord Vertebral column replaces notochord as main body support in most vertebrates allows for larger body size Well developed head Cranium skull of bone or cartilage Remnants are disks Holds brain coordination of voluntary and involuntary movement Paired sensory organs 1st vertebrates didn t have jaws or teeth Efficient circulatory system with a heart Closed circulatory system 2 4 chambers with valves Hemoglobin in blood cells Gill arches rods of cartilage bone support gill slits Arteriole capillary bed artery vein venule atrium ventricle Muscle action helps ventilate gills Earliest vertebrates All jawless and fish like Many later jawless fish had bony armor plates Some with lateral fins All extinct by mid Paleozoic replaced by jawed fish Jawless Vertebrates Myxini hagfish Marine scavengers Reduced eyes Defensive slime Petromyzontida lampreys Jawless parasite on fish Spinal cartilage elements Keratin teeth Lecture



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