UT Arlington BIOL BIOL 3427 - Plant Nutrition (3 pages)

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Plant Nutrition

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Plant Nutrition


This lecture note described t\describes the nutrition of a plant required for optimal growth.

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Texas at Arlington
Biol Biol 3427 - Plant Science
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BIOL 3427 1st Edition Lecture 15 Outline of Current Lecture II Prokaryotes III Viruses IV Fungi V Symbiotic relationships Current Lecture I II III IV Plant Nutrition a Relatively simple compared to animals b Definition Essential elements a 17 essential elements b Element is essential if i Micronutrients trace elements 1 Concentrations 100 mg kg dry matter ii Macronutrients 1 Concentrations 1000 mg kg dry matter iii Requirements differ among plant groups and species Functions of Essential Elements a Many roles i Structural enzymatic regulatory ionic b Nutrient deficiency symptoms i Most associated with shoot ii Stunted growth iii Necrosis 1 Localized tissue death iv Chlorosis 1 Loss or reduced chlorophyll yellowing v Phloem mobile elements 1 Mg P K N move readily through phloem 2 Symptoms more pronounced in older leaves The soil a Soils provide plant with i Support ii Inorganic nutrients iii Water These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute b c d e f g h i j k l iv Suitable gaseous environment for roots roots need oxygen for respiration Rock weathering i Heating and cooling causes fragmentation 1 Produces inorganic soil components ii Weathered rock colonized by pioneer organisms iii Decay adds organic soil components iv Eventually plant roots hold soil in place Soil Horizons i A horizon topsoil 1 Upper region has the most organic material a Humus dark mixture of decomposed organic matter b Living material plant roots decomposers bacteria fungi ii B Horizon subsoil 1 Region of deposition Fe Oxide clay some organic matter leach downward via water iii C Horizon soil base 1 Weathered rocks from which the soil is formed Soil matter inorganic portion i Sand course to fine largest particle size ii Silt intermediate iii Clay smalled hold water Pore space i Air and water surrounding soil particles ii Approximately 50 of soil volume good drainage sand Water potential i Indication of amount of water held in soil ii Also described as a plant s water uptake ability iii Below minimum threshold plant will wilt not enough water Soils retain cation lose anion i Negative charged clay humus surface binds cations ii Can be retained for plant growth by exchange with H Biochemical cycles i Nutrient cycles inudure organisms and their physical environment May be be global or localized i Global gaseous C O S N ii Localized P Ca K micronutrients Where is most Nitrogen on earth i In atmosphere 78 In what form i Nitrogen gas not usable by most organisms ii Nitrogen needed as ammonium or nitrate in soils Three main processes V i Ammonification ii Nitrification iii Assimilation m Ammonification Nitrogen mineralization i Dead organic matter first decomposed poop soil bac fungi work on decomposing dead stuff ii By saprotrophic bac some fungi iii Excess Nitrogen released on ammonium ions NH4 iv Plants can take up ammonium n Nitrification Oxidation of ammonium i Chemosynthetic autotroph Nitrosomonas 1 Oxidize ammonium to nitrate ions NO2 ii Another bacterium Nitrobacter 1 Oxidizes nitrite to nitrate NO3 iii Plants take up nitrate o Assimilation i Incorporation of nitrates and ammonium into organic compounds 1 Nitrate reduced to ammonium inside a cell first 2 Ammonium used to form amino acids ii Plants form root nodules p Other nitrogen fixing bacteria free living i Some aerobic others anaerobic Nitrogen cycle a Nitrogen fixation i Nitrogen gas reduced to NH4 ii Only attain bacteria 1 Rhizobium and bradyrhizobium symbiotic with legumes beans soybean a Mutualistic relationship 2 Frankia with other plant families

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