TAMU PSYC 500 - Final Exam Study Guide (11 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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Pages:
11
Type:
Study Guide
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Psyc 500 - Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine
Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine Documents
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PSYCH 360 500 Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 19 27 Lecture 19 November 6 Introduction to Pain and Pain Management What are the reasons for Pain It is an adaptive trait that alerts us to danger Motivates escape and avoidance learning Motivates recovery from illness How did the Beecher Studies done on civilians and soldiers show that pain is partly subjunctive The study showed that perception of pain was different for similar injuries because of the different situations Soldier reported experiencing relatively less pain than civilians even though civilians had fewer wounds What factors influence Pain Expectations Emotional State of Individual the Context Nature of Injury What is the International Association for Study s definition of Pain A sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage How does Acute Pain differ from Chronic Pain Acute pain Is typically transient not long lasting Happens recurrently Is reversible Chronic pain Is persistent pain that cannot be easily overcome Is long lasting May or may not be reversible What are nociceptors In what pathway do they signal pain to the brain Definition Sensory receptors that detect signals from damaged tissue or the threat of damage and once activated they become hyperalgesic for the rest of the injury Pathway 1 Axons of nociceptor neurons carry signal to cord 2 Release of neurotransmitters 3 Activation of pain transmission neurons in spinal cord 4 Signal is carried to regions of brain Types Chemical Mechanical and Temperature Thermal What are the two different ways in which nociceptive information is transmitted Ascending Transmission Bottom up process of signal transmission that provides the brain with information about tissue damage Thalamus is the major convergence point Descending Modulation Top down process of nociceptive modulation that regulates pain transmission Periaqueductal grey PAG is the major convergence point How does the Descending Modulation Process regulate the pain experience Brain alters the activity of the pain transmission system by amplifying or inhibiting pain signals coming through the PAG Inhibition pain is controlled and inhibited by the release of opioids and some non opioids i e serotonin and norepinephrine which block the ascending neurons Facilitation enhance transmission of pain to enhance pain Are examples of pain therapies Pharmacotherapy i e non opioid analgesics opioid analgesics and nerve block Electrical stimulation Acupuncture Chiropractics Physical Therapy What is Conditioned Place Preference A type of conditioning that is studies how an unconditioned stimulus that makes the mouse or other animal either associate the place of stimulus with an avoidance or preference approach Lecture 20 November 11 Pain and Pain Management Continued What is a homeostatic emotion and how does it relate to pain Pain is a homeostatic emotion Homeostatic emotion an attention demanding motivation that occurs from an internal body state that will lead to a certain behavior to restore the internal ideal condition What are Free Nerve Endings Definition Neurons not surrounded by special capsules or end organs these neurons are found in all body tissues where pain is sensed Types Thermal Mechanical Polymodal Silent What is Thunberg s Illusion A sensory illusion of a burning sensation that occurs when a hand presses against a grill that has a combination of cool bars and warm bars What are the types of Peripheral Pain Neurons What type of pain is each pain neuron fiber responsible for A Delta Fibers thick myelinated fast conducting neurons Involved in the feeling of fast and sharp pain C Fibers very thin unmyelinated slow conducting Involved in feeling of slow and dull pain Neuropathic Pain v Nociceptive Pain Nociceptive Pain nociceptors in tissues send pain signals This pain is associated with mild sprains and strains severe arthritis or tumors invading small tissues Neuropathic Pain caused by damage to the nerve This pain is associated with peripheral nerve cut crushed diabetes MS herpes zoster aka shingles What is Phantom Limb Pain What are treatments for it Neuropathic Pain that originates from an absent limb Treatment includes drugs i e antidepressants and spinal cord stimulation What is Hyperalgesia Definition Increased burning of pain on the skin or tissue Types Primary prolonged changes of peripheral nociceptors and central neurons can be seen in sensitivity at burn site Secondary sensitization of surrounding neurons can be seen in sensitivity to surrounding skin of burn site Allodynia severe pain from the touch of a non painful stimulation Lecture 21 November 13 Pain and Pain Management Continued Describe Chronic Pain and the different types of chronic pain Give examples for each Definition Pain that does not decrease with treatment and does not decrease and time passes Patients have high sensitivity to pain low pain inhibition and pain that interferes with life activities Types Chronic Benign Pain Persists more than 6 months and varies in severity i e Chronic Back Pain Recurrent Acute Pain Includes intermittent episodes of acute pain but is considered to be chronic pain because it lasts more than 6 months i e Migraine Headaches Chronic Progressive Pain Pain increases in severity over time and is typically associated with degenerative disorders or malignancies i e Rheumatoid Arthritis Cancer How does Chronic Pain affect Lifestyle and Relationships Leads to little or social recreational life Difficulty performing simple tasks Sleep disturbances Negatively affects relationships especially ones that are sexually involved What is the relationship between Depression and Chronic Pain Pain is not a direct causation for depression but increases the risk of depression Pain reduces activity and perceptions of control leads to the risk of depression What characteristics are often shown to have elevated scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Neurotic Triad Hypochondriasis Hysteria Depression What techniques are used to control pain Pharmacological Morphine is most common Surgical Control Sensory Control Counter irritation Dorsal Column Stimulation Increase Activity and Mobility Biofeedback Patient is given ongoing information about a particular physiological process by a machine so that they can learn to modify it Relaxation Techniques Hypnosis Acupuncture Distraction Coping Technique Guided Imagery Lecture 22 November 18


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