CSU HIST 100 - Final Exam Study Guide (11 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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HIST 100 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Martin Luther German Monk Major figure behind reformation Studied scripture o Against indulgences o Didn t believe all sacraments Translated Bible into German Ex communicated from church diet of worms Wittenburg revolt of peasants condemned them for violence 95 Theses Thoughts on problems with the Catholic church o Pluralism o Indulgences o Sacraments John Calvin Humanist Lawyer Left Catholic Church Geneva Transubstantiation o Believed it was metaphorical not real Pre destination Biblical literalist Significance of reformation Break in catholic church to many sects Made the church less significant as a power Religious violence in Europe Made possible by printing press Religious Climate of Reformation Reform from inside church Erasmus Branching of from o Anglican Henry VII o Lutheran People reading and interpreting bible for themselves o Translation and printing press o Church made irrelevant for protestant faith Religion dictated by rulers of region o Changes between protestants and Catholics Henry VII Married Catherine of Aragon o No son Wanted a divorce but church didn t allow it Anne Boleyn o Breaks from catholic church to start church of England Anglican Has Anne executed 6 wives total Protestant church monarch at the head Son Edward VI o takes throne but dies o Mary takes throne Catholicism o Throne to Elizabeth Anglican golden age of England Machiavelli Wrote the prince o One of the first modern state craft books o How states and king should interact with people each other in a modern state Founder of political sciences Humanist Politician Philosopher Studia Humanitatis Study of humanities Grammar History Poetry University dominates scholasticism Humanism Belief in human potential Concern to develop human potential and value the individual Comes in age of the renaissance Leonardo da Vinci Renaissance artist Oil blending The last super Mona Lisa Natural sciences Birds flying Characteristics of the Renaissance Rebirth Classics Greek and roman culture Humanism Express through art music literature plays modern state craft Renaissance Art Religious patronage of art More detail More life like Donatello michael angelo Raphael Leonardo Printing Press Access to books Fewer errors in spelling standardized More books in other languages Acquired more knowledge Invented in Germany Increase in literacy Pluralism The practice of holding more than one office of church benefice at a time problematic Confession Luther didn t believe in confession middle man Acknowledging some personal fact that the person would prefer to keep hidden Not in bible Transubstantiation The doctrine that the entire substances of the bread and wine are changed in the Eucharist into the body and blood Christ Luther agrees john Calvin doesn t 95 Thesis Created by Luther Meant to be an academic discussion Rejected indulgences Printed in Europe Made the church irrelevant Brought the Power of the bible to the hands of the people Predestination The doctrine that God had foreordained all souls to salvation or domination It was especially associated with Calvinism Triangular trade Slave trade Sugar tobacco cotton European textiles rum 8 manufactured goods Africa slaves to Americans Middle Passage Stage of triangular trade in which millions of people shipped to new world 15 died higher mortality rate before they left Africa Conquistadores Spaniards that conquered the new world Looking Looking for Golding and silver mining Forced labor Dark side of west civ Spanish crown received 1 5 of revenue Ex Cortez took Aztec empire Islamic Legacy Syrian Christian monks began to translate mathematics Numerical system 1 9 0 Decimals Quadratic equations Philosophy theater Preserved Greek roman trevencies Motivation for exploration Power and profit Religion and the spread of Christianity Middle man trade between Europe Africa and Asia Caravel Bigger ship with multiple sails that were more efficient for exploration Henry the Navigator First to venture into the Atlantic Ocean For Portuguese expansion Colombian Exchange Exchange of goods from Europe to America vice versa Food animals and disease o Tabacco potato chili sugar peanuts new world to old world o Horses disease small pox plague cow old world to new world Columbus Arrived at Caribbean islands while sailing west in search for shorter route to spice markets of the far east Spanish in search of gold Europe wide economic expansion Led to long history of native American conquest disease and slave labor Led to numerous species of fruit vegetables animals to America Spread of European disease to native Americans Aztecs Ancient society that lived in central Mexico known for bloody sacrifice Mainly ruled over Tenochtitlan Modern Day Mexico Conquered by Spanish Cortes was leader of Spanish city Aztec emperor was Montezuma II Spanish was driven out and almost wiped out but came back to siege Mex City Incas Ancient society that lived through the Andes Developed commination system by knots on rope Centrally located in Peru Developed road system Romans of south America Hernan Cortes Conquistador Conquered the Aztecs 550 troops 16 horses in 1519 Believed by the Aztecs to be quetzalquotel Took Tenochtitlan hostage Opened communication with Montezuma II Black Death Two possible causes of what we believe today Septic emic Plague spread from fleas to black rats to human Pneumonic Plague airborne disease 95 mortality rate Bubonic plague gangrene of extremities and smooth painful lymph gland swelling 1352 estimated 75 if Europe s population was dead After the plague decreased population workforce abandoned land cost of living decreased and rose in urban cities led to renaissance Believed causes god astrological earthquakes well poisoning by Jews Cures flagellants none pockets of posies pogroms quarantine Pogroms Persecution of Jews in Europe during the Black death blamed scapegoats Why Jews were not getting the plague due to their cleanliness because of their faith Accusations spread similar to crusades Massacres throughout Europe Flagellant Movement Belief that one must punish themselves to show God they were sorry o They believed that god was punishing mankind through the black plague so they believed god would cure them if they punished themselves Joan of Arc French heroin who becomes military leader she was young Unlikely military hero who turns the tides for French Led the victory at Orleans Was captured by burgundies then ransomed her to English Trial


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