UA HIST 277A - Final Exam Study Guide (10 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


The study guide covers everything from the last unit and a review from previous units.

Study Guide
University of Arizona
Hist 277a - History of the Middle East
History of the Middle East Documents
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HIST 277A 1st Edition Exam 3 Final Exams Study Guide Lectures 1 16 1 Who are the following individuals a Harun al Rashid was an Abbasid caliph under whose rule Baghdad entered the Golden Age b Al Ma mun was another Abbasid caliph who waged a civil war against his own brother to gain the seat of the caliphate He was quite a controversial leader He supported the Rationalists during the big controversy regarding how the Quran was created The Rationalists believed that the Qur an was not part of God that it was created Al Ma mun did not appoint his sons as successor unlike his predecessors He appointed a Shi a Imam named Ali al Ridda as his successor c Al Ghazali was a law professor at a law institution founded by Nizam al Mulk He was a scholar and author His works talked about philosophy theology and arguments that refuted the teachings of Isma ili d Nizamal Mulk was a wazir to the Seljuq sultan and founded the Islamic School of Law in Baghdad He invited Arab scholars including Al Ghazali to teach at his law school Al Mulk was assassinated by an Isma ili secret organization e Al Hakim was the 6th Fatimid caliph and 16th Isma ili Imam He destroyed and burned the Church of Resurrection in Jerusalem But he was also credited for the building of the House of Wisdom Dar al Hikam f Salah al Din established the Ayubbid Dynasty in Egypt after defeating and ending the Fatimid Dynasty He eventually united Syria and Egypt defeated the Crusaders and took over Jerusalem g Al Kamil was the nephew of Saladin who eventually became the caliph of the Ayyubid dynasty He ruled in Egypt and came into an agreement with an Italian Emperor named Frederick II to hand over Jerusalem to the Franks One problem was Jerusalem was not under al Kamil s jurisdiction h Shajarat al Durr was the first female sultan to rule over a dynasty Her husband was Ayyub the son of al Kamil When he died she took over and was helped by the Mamluk army Even though they were rising up to power the Mamluk let the Queen stayed in charge and worked behind the scene When she took the throne her name was pronounced in the Friday prayers and a royal seal was designed under her name Um Khalil i Pope Urban II was a western Pope during the Crusade time that called for the liberation of Eastern churches and Jerusalem from the hands of the heathens In brief Urban II was the one who declared holy war against the Muslims But in reality his ulterior motive was to expand his control over to the east j Al Ma munide was a Jewish scholar philosopher astronomer and physician originated from Spain Due to the Spanish Inquisition he travelled to the Middle East where he eventually became Saladin s personal physician He died in Egypt k Tariq Ibn Ziyad was a Berber from North Africa that led the first Muslim invasion of Spain He eventually established the Umayyad Caliphate there The region of this Islamic state was called Andalusia or al Andus located in the southeastern part of Spain l Abd al Rahman I was the remaining Umayyad survivalist during the rise of the Abbasid Caliphate He escaped prosecution by the Abbasid to Tunisia He eventually went to Andalusia but was followed by the Abbasid army In the end al Rahman I successfully defeated the Abbasid and became an Ummayad caliph in Andalusia He built the capital Cordova m Abd al Rahman III an Umayyad that ruled in Spain He announced himself as a caliph due to the threat that came from the Fatimid Under his rule the Muslims in Spain reached their zenith 2 What did the Abbasid claim at the beginning to rally people around them The Abbasid claimed that the Umayyads were godless people unsuitable to rule and that they the Abbasids were the descendants of the prophet giving them the right to rightfully take over the caliphate 3 Name 5 Abbasid Caliphs First is al Safah who was the first caliph of the Abbasid Dynasty He defeated the Umayyads with the help of Abu Muslim a Khurazan governor Second is al Mansur the brother of al Safah who built Baghdad and ironically killed two immediate members of the prophet s family Third is al Mahdi Harun al Rashid s father He stopped the prosecution of the prophet s family and began to appoint them as governors and military guards Fourth is Harun al Rashid under whose rule Baghdad reached its zenith Lastly is al Ma mun 4 What was the name of the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate Who built it Baghdad It was built by al Mansur 5 Why did the Abbasid choose that city to be their capital Al Mansur chose Baghdad nicknamed The Round City to be the dynasty s capital due to its strategic location Baghdad was very close to Khurasan which held a political economical and spiritual significance Khurasan was very loyal to the Abbasid Caliphate and many of the governors and military personnel originated from here In addition Khurasanians were in fact involved in defeating the Umayyad Empire Economically Khurasan was very advantageous because it represented a trade route and was located between two rivers In addition Khurasan was very close to family shrines that were spiritually symbolic for the Abbasids 6 What was different about the policy of the Abbasid toward their subjects which was different than the Umayyad Under the Abbasid rule the discrimination against non Arabs stopped Khurasanians were now allowed to be appointed in government courts and military The Abbasids also embraced non Arab Muslims and taxed them as Muslims The Umayyad in contrast was very discriminate against non Arab Muslims treated them as inferior and taxed them heavily 7 The zenith of the Abbasid occurred during which caliph Harun al Rashid 8 Name the contribution of Harun al Rashid a Built the famous House of Wisdom Dar al Hikma b Supported poetry literature philosophy and sciences c Made Baghdad the center of intellect knowledge and trade d Began the recording of Islamic Law Islamic theology and commentaries on the Qur an also began to take shape under his rule e Introduced different literary works to be translated into various languages f Left surplus in the dynasty s treasuries g Traded ambassadors with other nations 9 During which caliph s time we see the decline of the Abbasid During al Ma mun s rule 10 Name two events occurred during the time of Al Ma mun which he was involved in directly a Al Ma mun was partially responsible for the civil war that broke out against his brother al Amin regarding the seat of the caliphate b He was also involved in the Minna Inquisition an argument between the Rationalists and

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