UT Knoxville BCMB 230 - Physiology Notes 2012 (109 pages)

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Physiology Notes 2012



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Physiology Notes 2012

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Pages:
109
School:
University of Tennessee
Course:
Bcmb 230 - Human Physiology
Human Physiology Documents
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Physiology Notes BCMB 240 Mark Alston Fall 2011 Course Intro Essay Questions will tell you what they are and can look over your answers Short Answers will give strong hints won t be on the same thing as the essay question Multiple Choice harder expect you to put concepts together Lab need close toed shoes and lab coat or scrubs Lecture Notes Physiology the study of how things work in the body the study of function Anatomy the study of structure There are several levels of Physiology small to big Molecular Cellular Tissue groups of cells working together Organ tissues working together Organ Systems Body Systems Homeostasis the tendency to maintain constant internal environment within a range around a setpoint Setpoint idealized value for some measurement where you can estimate from i e it will be somewhere close to but might change according to conditions ex pH body temperature Mechanisms for Maintaining Homeostasis 2 Need change in internal environment o Negative Feedback most important of the mechanisms in a physiological process the presence of the product inhibits the reaction ex Glucose plasma control o Positive Feedback in a physiological process the presence of the product accelerates the process ex Blood clotting Feed Forward anticipates a change in internal environment and meets that need o Usually are a learned response o Gets us ready to respond o Ex Salivation before eating Reflex automatic pre programmed response to a stimulus o Types Nervous Endocrine Local Etc o Can be acquired Components of a Reflex Stimulus require a stimulus to initiate o Internal o External Receptor receive detect stimulus goes to integrating center Integrating center processes information and sends instructions to the effector Effector acts on the information and instructions sent by the integrating center o Can fix things or stop them from getting worse Reflex Pathways Figure 1 8 Afferent approaches o Receptor detects stimulus integrating center processes information o Information is sent from the receptor to the processing center Efferent exits o Integrating processes information and send instructions effector responds Integrating center Integrating Center Afferent I I Receptor Effector I I Stimulus Response Efferent Other Terms Adaptation change in genes of population over a long period of time o Sensory adaption if you have constantly applied stimulus we may not continue to respond Acclimatization change in a single individual relatively quickly o Example how clothing changes quickly for fall spring temperatures or adapting to the lower oxygen at a higher altitude o Body makes changes to deal with conditions o Results in improved functioning or different response to environmental conditions o Usually reversible Developmental Acclimatization o Critical Period acclimatization will happen during this period Chemistry Terms Covalent Bond electrons are shared Nonpolar covalent electrons are share equally Polar Covalent electrons are shared un equally has slight charge at either end of the molecule Ionic bond electrons are transferred not shared Hydrogen Bonding when H is bonded to O or N o Weakish but very important o Partial charge o In polar covalent molecules Chemical reactions make and break bonds Cation a positive ion Anion a negative ion Disassociation when the pieces of an ionic bond are pulled apart Dissolution does not require disassociation the particles of one substance are evenly distributed throughout another substance Nonpolar does not dissolve in H2O Hydrophobic Lipophilic does not dissolve in H2O Polar will dissolve in H2O Hydrophilic Lipophobic will dissolve in H2O Amphipathic has both a polar and a nonpolar part of the molecule o Form spheres in H2O o Also can form a bilayer Macromolecules Carbohydrates o Simple sugar monosaccharide o Disaccharides 2 simple sugars stuck together o Polysaccharides many sugars Ex glycogen starch o ROLE ENERGY Glucose the way we distribute energy all over the body C6H12O6 Will dissolve not dissociate Glycogen energy storage Glucose polymer branches Starch in plants we break it down to glucose glycogen o Carb Formula CnH2O o Dehydration reaction Glucose Fructose Sucrose H2O Water is always a product in a dehydration reaction Lipids Fats o ROLES Energy Plasma Membrane o Basic Unit Fatty acid Long hydrocarbon chain with acid carboxyl at the end Has polar nonpolar ends Amphipatic o Saturated only single bonds o Unsaturated some double bonds One mono Many poly o Always even number of carbons o Triglyceride fat Glycerol 3 fatty acids Very efficient energy storers o Phospholipid Glycerol 2 fatty acids phosphate group Has polar and nonpolar ends amphipatic o Steroids all have carbon ring structure Cholesterol base Often are hormones Also in cell membrane important component Nucleic Acids o Carry information o Nucleotide basic unit Formula sugar phosphate group nitrogenous base o DNA cell nucleus specifics to make protein o RNA transfers information from DNA to cell machinery to make protein Protein o Basic unit Amino Acid Has Carboxyl group Amino group R group side chain variable depending on the particular amino acid 20 different kinds to make protein o Peptide bond formed between amino group and carboxyl group in a dehydration reaction Dipeptide Tripeptide Oligopeptide Polypeptide Protein o Not all polypeptides are protein o Proteins Are polypeptides Lots of amino acids Have complex 3d structure o Protein structure Primary Structure sequence of amino acids Secondary Structure fold within the polypeptide can have multiple kind sections Alpha helix spiral due to H bonds Beta pleated sheet accordion fold H Bonds Tertiary structure interactions between R groups Hydrogen bonds ionic bonds van der waals covalent etc 3d shape function Quaternary Structure interactions of multiple polypeptide chains Not in all proteins o Protein denaturation When a protein changes its 3d shape change in folding pattern and then changes function Secondary and tertiary structure May be reversible May be caused by Ion concentration pH temperature o Protein degradation Change in the primary structure sequence of amino acids Permanent change The Cell has 2 main parts plasma membrane and the cytoplasm Plasma membrane Phospholipid bilayer the polar groups face out and the nonpolar ones face in o A good barrier against water hydrophilics o But now how do we get things into the cell Protein o Integral go all the way through the bilayer o Peripheral on one side Sugars and lipo sugars o


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