UMass Amherst COMM 231 - Final Exam Study Guide (13 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


An overview of the last units of the course, including sound, editing, documentaries, and non scripted filmmaking.

Study Guide
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Comm 231 - Film and Television Production Concepts
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COMM 231 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lecture 13 October 30 Cinema is sculpting in time Tarkovsky The foundation of film art is editing Pudovkin Without editing what do we get Hours and hours of interrupted footage ex Monty Python and the Holy Grail 1975 scene switch from a runner running to the guards and their faces adds to the humor because there is actually no advancement of the runner between the cuts What is the purpose and function of editing to cut down action in space time create meanings and multiple perspectives establish rhythm cover mistakes or conceal stunts The editing process takes multiple takes circled takes director will circle the best take the editor will edit with that one scene use the takes to create the scene mix wide medium and close up shots dailies and rough cuts work print answer print final edit release print Types of edits 1 straight cut no transition just 2 scenes matched up transitions film from 1 shot to another 2 match cut no dissolve or transition cutting on action action started in one shot continued from different perspective in other 3 jump cut disruption of time and space jarring doesn t make sense breaking 180 degree rule line counts as a jump cut 4 fades out and in 5 iris out and in 7 dissolve 8 wipe 9 cut away insert you can cross the 180 degree line if it is during a continuous shot Theories of film editing Kuleshov Russian early 20th century Alfred Hitchcock and the Kuleshov Effect A man with an expression on his face interrupted by an image of different things soup a baby a woman undressed and then back to the man with an expression Based on the picture in the middle the interpretation of the man s expression changes with soup he looks hungry with the girl he looks lustful A B does not equal A B A B C a third meaning Edwin S Porter American late 19th early 20th century parallel editing multiple perspectives The Life Of A Fireman 1903 different shots a woman running around in smoke parallel with a firefighter getting ready DW Griffith American early 20th parallel editing multiple perspectives The Birth Of A Nation 1915 Sergei Eisenstein Russian 20th century montage Battleship Potemkin 1925 the Odessa step sequence Thematic montage Intolerance Griffith 1916 2001 A Space Odyssey Kubrick 1968 Editing is storytelling Psycho Alfred Hitchcock 1960 picture and sound editing make this scene dramatic and unnerving Lecture 14 November 4 Editing Examples North By Northwest Hitchcock 1959 Think about how the editing makes this scene intriguing length of shots repetition of shots types of edits sound The Graduate different examples of editing jump cuts match shots jump cuts are different places in space and time match cuts are the same time Lecture 15 November 6 What are we less tolerant of in movies Grainy shaky low light images OR badly recorded sound We are less tolerant of bad sound Elements of film sound A Three phases of making sound during production create record mix B Dubbing post production have them re do lines or do narration or voice overs sound effects and music are post production too Range and Types of Sound in Film A Four types of sound dialogue effects music silence B Ambient sound C Diegetic and Non diegetic sound diegetic is sound that the characters and audience can hear and have a logical connection to the world on screen non diegetic sound is not visible nor implied is sound coming from source outside the story D Automated Dialogue Replacement ADR Looping actors come in to redeliver their lines E Digital manipulation like Godzilla s voice F Vocals record cleanly not two people talking at once G Effects H Foley reassociation of image and sounds and creative use of any sound to match up with what we are seeing on screen like stepping in snow is made by someone marching on starch do Foley for three reasons convenience necessity reasons for morality I Transitions 3 kinds straight dissolve sound sound bridge Further thoughts on sound aesthetics Atmosphere and mood Eraserhead David Lynch 1977 changes the sound to match the landscape Complement to visuals King Kong Cooper 1933 Mickey mousing music in the film is serving as literal accompaniment to what is happening on screen Final thoughts on sound aesthetics Sound can actively shape how we interpret the image Sound can guide us to focus on elements of the image Sound can affect us on its own Sound can clarify events contradict them or render them ambiguous Lecture 16 November 11 Music and in film Convey meanings with lyrics lyrics will be quite literal Juxtaposition of music and images images become less ambiguous often in music videos and commercials Too Literal some people agree direct our emotions too much Retain Integrity music should retain its own integrity has its own role in film Descriptive e g mickeymousing extra diegetic which is a musical cue or source that s coming out of emotion Collaboration with music composers Translate source drama into music Contribute music After the fact music Originate some will collaborate throughout the production some composers will do it all when the film is done Neil Young composer of Dead Man composed all of it after the movie was finished Function of music Overture meant to situate us Orientation tells us the location and class of the film Foreshadowing Internal States conveys sense of internal state of character Music and character John Williams composer made Darth Vader s leitmotif in Star Wars His leitmotif is not as dark during Darth Vader s taking off of his mask as it is throughout the movie Music and dramatic intensity Parallel and counterpoint clip from The Good The bad and the ugly intense build up Film Musicals Realist have production numbers that are dramatically plausible A Star is Born New York New York Moulin Rouge Once The Sound Of Music Formalist makes no pretense of realism Chicago Dancer In The Dark An American In Paris Across the Universe Mix Dreamgirls Singin in the rain Rock of Ages Music and Film Musical Biographies Musical Documentaries like Katy Perry s Part Of Me Concert movies Film Operas Animated Musicals Lion King Aladdin Films heavily relying on music School of Rock Lecture 17 November 13 Grizzly Man 2005 Werner Herzog Director Henry Kaiser Music producer Richard Thompson Composer In The Edges The Grizzly Man Session a behind the scenes look at producing music for the feature documentary about Timothy Treadwell s life and death among grizzly bears Oscar Nominated Scores in 2011 How to Train Your

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