UW-Madison COUNPSY 650 - Exam 2 Study Guide (19 pages)

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Exam 2 Study Guide

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Exam 2 Study Guide


All of the material for exam 2

Study Guide
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Counpsy 650 - Theory and Practice in Interviewing
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CounsPsych 650 Exam 2 Study Guide Lectures 8 12 Lecture 8 October 31 Individual and Cultural Differences Why study theories about individual and cultural differences Basic Assumption how we understand individual and cultural differences impacts how we communicate and how we engage in the interview process o Meta communication process IGU individual group universal Tripartite Model o Perceptions of identities inside vs outside the group o Salience of identities varies by context o Group membership itself influences the emphasis we put on different levels of analysis o Power o Within group difference are greater than between group differences Models of Group Differences Western Psychology Pathological Model o Some groups and individuals are genetically deficient or lacking in desirable attributes o 18th century European colonization and scientific technological advances Darwin o Non whites as intermediary between apes and fully formed humans o Justification of slavery eugenics various genocides removal of Native American from their lands o Gender differences o Ex athletics certain racial groups being better at certain sports based on their biology Culturally Deficient o Shift from biology to environmental differences o Some individuals and groups are unable to function well in the US because they lack cultural supports to ensure success o Culturally Deprived Child Frank Riessman PhD o 1960 s emphasis on social justice and civil rights o People of color had dysfunctional family cultures not genetic make ups Fine arts vs crafts Individualism vs collectivism Ballet vs community dance Chess vs Dominos Culturally Different o Some individuals and groups are culturally different from majority o Creates normal versus comparison group o Different from Culturally Diverse o Difference is a positive aspect of human society o Comfort with difference is essential Each developed at different times for different reasons o Applying these models to affirmative action preference in hiring decisions to under represented group why we need it o Pathological certain groups don t quite have it biologically and they need an advantage and need to be selected o Deficient some groups are disadvantaged because they don t have cultural resources as a group o Different institutions have a system in which under represented aren t apart of o Diverse benefits of having diverse workforce campus Models are not about liberal conservative viewed on all side of the perspective Approaches to Cultural Differences in the Interview Pathological Model o Ex What is your approach to conflict and advocacy Women not built to be in conflict like men are Culturally Deficient o Ex Who do you know in the local business community Culturally Different o Ex Where did you attend law school Are you more like me Have good credentials Culturally Diverse o Ex What can your Southern roots brings to the table o All are okay questions to ask about the intention behind them Psychological Impact of Models of differences Stereotype Threat Steel Anderson 1995 o Some people are harmed by ways other people view them Psychological Colonialism Fanon 1952 o There was real colonialism and that was a bad thing the oppression isn t due to access to land etc but to the mind as well Persistence of micro aggressions Sue 2003 o Micro aggressions small sometimes big subtle unconscious statements about a different group of people that are inferior aggressive put other people down often times don t mean to General Challenges 1 It s easier to change behavior than beliefs or values 2 Use of self as the standard reference point trying to understand cultures from our own perception can become encapsulated 3 Becoming aware of individual and cultural differences without stereotyping 4 Impulse to speak for your group or to ask others to speak for theirs Tools for Developing Self Awareness Theories of cultural socialization worldview o Control Rotter 1966 Internal control rests w individual can shape own fate External control by some external force o Responsibility Jones 1997 Internal person External system o Locus of control Locus of responsibility diagram Each quadrant represents a different worldview or orientation to life o Models of Identity development o Assessments to increase self knowledge Locus of Control and Responsibility IC IR internal control internal responsibility o Masters of Fate o Actions directly affect outcomes o Current status dues to own efforts EC IR external control internal responsibility o Accept idea of self responsibility o Realizes they have little control o Marginal Man Stonequist 1937 book talked about men in society thought didn t have control over life great depression however believed it was their responsibility to provide and it is their fault EC ER external control external responsibility bottom right o Blames system o Feels little can be done o Attempt to gain favor from the system IC ER internal control external responsibility o Able to shape own life if given the chance o Present state not due to own weakness Understanding Individual Differences Intelligence Wechsler IQ scores Personality introvert extrovert Political views Temperament Attachment styles Scales Assessments Quizzes Paper and pencil online Third party observation Analogue behavior created by experiment Interview structured unstructured o Individual o Group Spheres of Control Scale SCS Paulhus and Van Selist 1990 Developed to assess control in three arenas o Personal I can usually achieve what I want when I work hard for it o Interpersonal If there is someone I want to meet I can usually arrange it o Socio political By taking an active part in political and social affairs we the people can control world events The higher your score the stronger your internal control Caveats to scales o Quantifying the phenomenological Philosophical problem o Cross sectional assessment Methodological problem o Reliability consistency o Reliability test re test consistency o Validity measuring what intend to measure Enculturation as an individual difference Process of learning the acceptable values and behaviors of our own culture Acculturation as an individual difference The degree to which cultural values and behaviors are held when cultures meet Learning acceptable norms and values in different cultures Multiethnic identity measure MEIM Measure to determine attitudes beliefs and behaviors associated with an individuals ethic group Measuring an individual difference about how you

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