TAMU BICH 411 - Final Exam Study Guide (6 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Review of material that will be on the final exam.

Study Guide
Texas A&M University
Bich 411 - Comprehen Biochem Ii

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BICH 411 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 1 24 Study Old Test Questions for lectures 1 18 She will reuse them for the old material on the exam chapters 18 24 about 25 questions Chapter 25 about 20 questions Definitions Nitrogen cycle nitrogen movement between the soil and the atmosphere including nitrogen assimilation Nitrate NO3 being reduced to ammonium NH4 about 99 of the nitrogen cycle 2 step metabolic pathway nitrogen fixation forming NH4 from N2 gas once ammonium is formed it s used in organic molecules or goes through the Urea cycle to be excreted as waste Nitrogen assimilation nitrate nitrite ammonium takes 8 electrons total 2 for nitrate reductase 6 for nitrite reductase involves thiol SH group of enzyme FAD cytochrome b and MoCofactor Nitrate reductase reduces the nitrate to nitrite using 2 electrons electrons are from NADH in the cytosol Nitrite reductase reduces nitrite to ammonium using 6 electrons electrons are from reduced ferrodoxins via 4Fe 4S and siroheme in the chloroplasts Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen gas ammonium only in certain prokaryotes requires reduced ferrodoxin for a reductant ATP Anaerobic conditions Nitrogenase complex 4 ATP required per electron pair 16 ATP total for each N2 reducing nitrogen is so expensive due to the VERY high activation energy from the triple bond Ammonium has 3 possible fates Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase I CPS I transformed to carbamoyl P Glutamate Dehydrogenase ammonium reduces alpha ketoglutarate to form glutamate Glutamine synthetase ammonium is used to amidate glutamate to form glutamine has feedback inhibitors Gly Ala Ser His Trp CTP AMP carbamoyl P glucosamine 6 phosphate adenylation inactivates this enzyme Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I CPS I NH4 HCO3 2 ATP H2N COO PO32 2 ADP Pi 2 H this is a good reaction to know early part of Urea Cycle requires 2 ATP one activates bicarbonate and the other phosphorylates carbamate This is the committed step of the Urea Cycle 2 pathways for Ammonium Assimilation

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