GSU BIOL 1104K - Final Exam Study Guide (22 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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Pages:
22
Type:
Study Guide
School:
Georgia State University
Course:
Biol 1104k - Introductory Biology Ii
Introductory Biology Ii Documents

Unformatted text preview:

BIOL 1104 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lecture 1 Three assumptions of science Natural causality o All things arise from natural causes Uniformity o Scientific laws are the same through time and space Common perception among all people o People perceive and measure things objectively These CANNOT be proven Theory highly validated generalized explanation for a phenomenon generalized Hypothesis thought supported by an observation about a specific system Scientific method Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction Experiments Observation Conclusion If observations don t match hypothesis reform hypothesis Lecture 2 Evolution any genetic change in a population Genetic change is a shift in gene frequency in a population It only occurs in populations not individuals It doesn t mean progress or adaptation Fossil record Preserved organisms Incomplete Traits Homologous trait shared origin Analogous trait different origin same function Development All embryos develop in similar ways DNA More closely related organisms have more similar DNA than distant relatives Experiments Artificial selection with cattle and dogs Development of resistances Lecture 3 4 mechanisms of evolution Mutation o Random change in DNA due to copy error or damage repair Natural selection o Individuals with more advantageous trait have more offspring o 4 postulates A trait varies Trait must be heritable Only some individuals reproduce Differential reproductive success o Fitness reproductive success relative to other individuals in a population Genetic drift o Random change in gene frequency o Reduces diversity o Happens in small populations Gene flow o Movement of genes between populations Species interbreeding or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other groups Allopatric speciation population gets physically separated then natural selection drives them differently until they become 2 different species Lecture 4 Community all interacting populations in



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