GSU BIOL 1104K - Final Exam Study Guide (22 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Study Guide
Georgia State University
Biol 1104k - Introductory Biology Ii
Introductory Biology Ii Documents
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BIOL 1104 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lecture 1 Three assumptions of science Natural causality o All things arise from natural causes Uniformity o Scientific laws are the same through time and space Common perception among all people o People perceive and measure things objectively These CANNOT be proven Theory highly validated generalized explanation for a phenomenon generalized Hypothesis thought supported by an observation about a specific system Scientific method Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction Experiments Observation Conclusion If observations don t match hypothesis reform hypothesis Lecture 2 Evolution any genetic change in a population Genetic change is a shift in gene frequency in a population It only occurs in populations not individuals It doesn t mean progress or adaptation Fossil record Preserved organisms Incomplete Traits Homologous trait shared origin Analogous trait different origin same function Development All embryos develop in similar ways DNA More closely related organisms have more similar DNA than distant relatives Experiments Artificial selection with cattle and dogs Development of resistances Lecture 3 4 mechanisms of evolution Mutation o Random change in DNA due to copy error or damage repair Natural selection o Individuals with more advantageous trait have more offspring o 4 postulates A trait varies Trait must be heritable Only some individuals reproduce Differential reproductive success o Fitness reproductive success relative to other individuals in a population Genetic drift o Random change in gene frequency o Reduces diversity o Happens in small populations Gene flow o Movement of genes between populations Species interbreeding or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other groups Allopatric speciation population gets physically separated then natural selection drives them differently until they become 2 different species Lecture 4 Community all interacting populations in an ecosystem Ecology study of interactions among organisms and with the environment Biotic is living abiotic is nonliving Interactions Competition bad for both Predator prey good for one bad for other Parasitism good for one bad for other Mutualism good for both Commensalism good for one neutral for other Competition sharing a limited resource reduces fitness Principle of competitive exclusion one party will end up losing completely Photosynthesis origin of energy comes from plants Turns carbon dioxide and light energy into oxygen and glucose Trophism Trophic levels feeding level Producer primary consumer secondary consumer tertiary consumer Carbon cycle Atmosphere oceans fossil fuels Co2 increases amount of heat in atmosphere Causes increased temperature and acidification of oceans o This leads to loss of habitat extinction and bleaching Exam 2 Study Guide Lectures Non vascular seedless plants like mosses evolved first then vascular seedless ferns and then vascular seed plants gymnosperms and angiosperms Plants have grown to become more independent from water One way that they have done this is to develop a waxy cuticle that prevents water loss This cuticle surrounds epidermal and endodermal layers Haploid 1 set of chromosomes diploid 2 sets triploid 3 sets Alternation of generations Plants have a 1n and 2n stage The 1n plant is called a gametophyte The 2n plant is called a sporophyte The 2n sporophyte undergoes meiosis to create 1n spores These spores undergo mitosis to become a 1n gametophyte The 1n gametophyte then undergoes mitosis to create 1n gametes These 1n gametes get fertilized and this creates a 2n zygote The zygote undergoes mitosis to become a 2n sporophyte Nonvascular seedless Mosses and liverworts These plants do not have vasculature vessels or roots or seeds Due to this they have restricted environments that they can live in They must live in moist areas They also cannot grow very tall up to a few inches The sporophyte is completely dependent on the gametophyte For reproduction water is necessary because the sperm need to swim to the egg for fertilization to occur Vascular seedless These plants have vessels so this allows them to grow much taller than the mosses However they still do not have seeds The sporophyte and the gametophyte are independent of one another Spores can travel a long way because they are carried by wind Since they are seedless they still need water to get the sperm to the egg This occurs on the heart shaped gametophyte Vascular seed plants Contain vasculature for movement of water and other compounds Use seeds for reproduction o These seeds are dormant embryonic sporophytes They are protected by a hard outer covering called a seed coat Inside is the endosperm which provides nutrients for the growing baby plant The gametophyte is dependent on the sporophyte There are 2 types of seed plants angiosperms flowering fruit producing plants and gymnosperms naked seed o Gymnosperms reproductive structures are the cones There are female and male cones Male cones produce pollen an adult male plant Produce a lot of pollen because it is spread by wind o Angiosperms reproduction occurs through double fertilization Produces a little pollen because it is carried directly to other plants by bugs 2 organ systems roots and shoots o Shoots stems and leaves do photosynthesis Contains nodes the places where the leaf attaches to the stem o Roots uptake water and minerals anchor plant Dermal tissue o Epidermis top most tissue made of waxy cuticle prevents water loss and infection o Periderm produces bark only in woody plants o Parenchyma perform photosynthesis and storage living o Collenchyma living support have thickened cell walls o Sclerenchyma die at maturity component of wood Vasculature o Xylem dead move water and minerals support o Phloem live move sugars Stomata o Pores that allow for water loss and gas entry o Surrounded by guard cells Plant growth o Primary upward o Secondary lateral only in woody plants o Meristems stem cells Apical at tips Lateral new xylem and phloem Osmosis and diffusion Diffusion movement of solute from a high concentration of that solute to a low concentration of that solute Osmosis movement of water from a high concentration of water to a low concentration of water Water moves through aquaporins that are imbedded in the membrane Roots Endodermis surrounds vascular cylinder that are sealed with wax Vascular cylinder contains xylem and phloem X xylem phloem surrounds in

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