Pitt NROSCI 0080 - Final Exam Study Guide (12 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Study Guide
University of Pittsburgh
Nrosci 0080 - Brain and Behavior
Brain and Behavior Documents
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NROSCI 0080 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Study Guide for Brain and Behavior Introduction to behavior and the brain Gall and Flourens Gall brain has at least 35 domains that correspond to specific mental functions self esteem secretiveness etc Increased use would increase size Flourens ablation technique localization of function believe Flourens Anatomy what makes up the CNS and PNS Brain and Spinal Cord o Forebrain midbrain hindbrain and spinal cord o Occipital back vision o Temporal temple hearing aspects of learning memory and emotion o Parietal top somatic sensation perception of the body o Frontal front planning and directing actions controlling movement Central sulcus separates frontal from parietal lobes Pre central gyrus primary motor cortex frontal lobe Post central gyrus primary somatosensory cortex parietal lobe Corpus callosum between the two hemispheres Microanatomy of Neurons Structure of the Neuron Cell body integrates information Dendrites receive messages from the axons of other neurons Axons carries information to be passed to other cells Cytoplasm all the fluid inside the neuron intracellular fluid Mitochondria breaks down glucose and provides cell with ATP many scattered throughout whole neuron Neurofilaments located under outer membrane of neuron internal skeleton Microtubules conveyor belts for vesicles and proteins for transport within the neuron Nucleus executive office center of soma contains chromosomes Rough ER used for assembling proteins Ribosomes on rough ER read genetic codes of RNA and assemble proteins Golgi apparatus wraps up proteins inside vesicles small and cisterns large delivered to microtubules and shipped to other regions of the neuron Plasma membrane surrounds the cytoplasm and axoplasm forms soft wall of the neuron including soma dendrites and axon o Made in a phospholipid bilayer Synapses Point of contact between neurons o Presynaptic is axon full of little round vesicles that open up to let out the chemical transmitters o Presynaptic is dendrites receives the neuro transmitters o Synaptic cleft Narrow space inside the synapse Glia blood vessels and CSF Glia Ependymal cells secretes cerebrospinal fluid CSF Astrocytes structural support regulate blood flow increases scar tissue formation Microglia defensive aid in cell repair Oligodendrocytes forms myelin around axons in the CNS Schwann cells forms myelin around axons in PNS Blood Vessels Blood Brain Barrier Tight junctions between the cells that compose blood vessels in the brain barrier of large molecule entry Capillaries are non fenestrated in the brain Areas with reduced absent BBB Pineal Gland day night cycles Pituitary Gland secretes hormones Area Postrema vomiting center CSF Dura Mater tough outer layer of fibrous tissue Arachnoid Mater thin sheet of delicate connective tissues o Subarachnoid space fluid filled space containing large blood vessels on surface of CNS Pia Mater moderately tough inner layer that clings to brain s surface Lateral ventricle within telencephalon cortex limbic system Third ventricle within diencephalon thalamus hypothalamus Cerebral aqueduct within mesencephalon midbrain Fourth ventricle within pons and medulla Central canal within spinal cord o Where are they located Cerebrospinal fluid continuous production by special networks of capillaries and ependymal cells inside the ventricles Flows front to back excess fluid flows to subarachnoid space and into venous system then reenters the blood stream How neurons communicate Ion Single atoms of elements that have a positive or negative electrical charge when dissolved in water o Cation positively charged ions Sodium potassium calcium Na K Ca o Anion negatively charged ions Chloride large organic anions Cl A Excitatory Post synaptic Potential EPSP signal that is able to open gated ion channels and allow ions to flow through polar membranes and cause depolarization Inhibitory Post synaptic Potential IPSP causes hyperpolarization o Depolarization excitation stimulation o Hyperpolarization inhibitory Electrical gradient positive Na ions outside the cell are driven to enter the negatively charged areas inside the neuron negative ions inside the neuron are driven to leave the cell and enter more positive extracellular fluid Chemical gradient Lots of Cl outside the cell very little inside lots of K inside very little outside Ligand gated channels open when chemicals bind Voltage gated channels open or close only at specific membrane voltages o Ligand gated located on dendrites opened by neurotransmitters o Voltage gated located along cell body opened by specific voltages Action Potential Nerve impulse carries electrical signals from a neuron s cell body to the tip of the axon so that it can release the chemical neurotransmitter onto the next neuron s circuit Myelin increases the speed of the action potential Development of the Nervous System Early Development Ectoderm forms the neural plate Bottom of the neural plate grows more rapidly causing edges to rise up forming neural groove Tops of neural groove meet and fuse forming the neural tube Cell guidance Cells migrate inside out directed by signals from other developing cells in the neuron s environment How do axons know where to go o Nerve Growth Factor o Chemoaffinity hypothesis Neurons make connections based on markers Some neurons die during development o Trophic factor Attraction chemicals released from targets to guide axons towards them Postnatal development Critical Period Period of synapse formation sensory influences impact how neurons communicate with each other lack of sensory input can lead to cell death increased sensory input can increase function Disorders o Spina bifida lower portion of neural tube does not close serious motor problems o Anencephaly top portion of neural tube does not close failure of forebrain to develop infants die soon after birth Control of Movement Acetylcholine ACh o Is it excitatory or inhibitory o Excitatory o What is acetylcholinesterase It is an enzyme Removes ACh from the synaptic cleft Agonist natural or synthetic chemicals that enhance or mimic the effects of a neurotransmitter Antagonist natural or synthetic chemicals that block or reduce the effects of a neurotransmitter Knee tap when the patellar tendon is stretched the quadriceps muscle contracts o What is the pathway o Monosynaptic o Where is the pathway located is cortex involved o Located in the spinal cord the cortex is not involved What does it mean that

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