TAMU BIOL 319 - Final Exam Study Guide (17 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Study Guide
Texas A&M University
Biol 319 - Integrated Hum An/Phy I
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BIOL 319 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide EXAM 4 REVIEW NOTES AND STUDY GUIDE Test 4 TOXINS INHIBITORS AND POISONS Protein that binds nicotine nicotinic receptor Realized that body makes endogenous ligand acetylcholine receptor binds nicotine Acetylcholine gated ion channels in brain linked to addictive behavior affects at much lower doses Acetylcholine gated ion channel agonist nicotine can act just like acetylcholine on skeletal muscle cell would need in huge amounts mimic of endogenous ligand Antagonist a chemical that binds a receptor but sits in key hole and doesn t open up gate inhibitor acetylcholine blocker can out compete endogenous acetylcholine that is released and block it from binding but does not activate anything itself blockers Ach curare blocker if gets into blood stream and extracellular fluid it can get into synapses in high concentrations and block activity of acetylcholine once released discovered by Indians found in plant gets into animals circulatory system and causes paralysis inhibits acetylcholine puff animal has muscle weakness and collapses ingesting it is not toxic because it gets broken up in GI tract anesthesiology creates relaxation in muscles makes them unconscious shuts down CNS but not too much go into deep sleep then use something to relax muscles at neuromuscular junction but not interfere with CNS SHOW ME A TOXIN AND I LL SHOW YOU A MEDICINE Botulinum too much would cause paralysis but at the right amount can be helpful Toxins water can be a toxin 11 13 Can help in small amounts hurt in large ones Per kg body weight is normalized for all people dependent upon body weight Antagonist competitor acetylcholine and curare compete for binding site antagonist binds and does nothing to open up channel but locks others from binding Curare paralyzes but does not mess with CNS Botulinum Toxin Mechanism Bacteria spores that do not need oxygen to be active thrives in no oxygen protein toxin considered to be most toxic substance on earth per kilogram body weight for humans botulism poisoning Snare proteins and matching proteins on vesicle brings it against membrane and can exocytose when Calcium is there Protein can get into blood and becomes toxic by binding to receptor in transmembrane protein at axon terminal is then brought into cell receptor mediated endocytosis fakes out cell because so close to shape on binding site Trojan horse When toxic comes in hydrolyzes snare proteins and makes them inactive so they cannot exocytose or interact with membrane releasing any acetylcholine Muscle sits paralyzed starts in head and spreads throughout body Botox spinal cord motor neurons affected during stroke and cannot be inhibited by brain so people spasm botox relieves spasm Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor nerve gas serin used in acts of terror fluorinated organic phosphate causes immediate convolsions when taken up respiratory route causes death nerve gas inhibits acetylcholinesterase and overstimulates makes person go into convulsions irreversibly binds acetylcholinesterase The good organophosphates are pesticide used to control insects very toxic to them but not as much to humans Inhibits acetylcholinesterase MILDLY can treat people with autoimmune disease where person making antibodies to acetylcholine gated ion channels in synapse inhibit function of synapse antibodies binding and not allowing acetylcholine to bind pulling channels into cell and removing them from cell surface muscle weakness can inhibit a little in the synapse to boost Ach and outcompete antibody which is causing problem Muscle Metabolism has capacity to make ATP fast when it needs it does not store it but stores the oxygen it needs for it Muscle energy supply get energy from 1 glucose glycogen is polymerized glucose which can be rapidly broken down 2 Fat when glucose is running out muscles eat fatty acids up form the blood when it is released during exercise GLUCOSE glycolysis takes glycogen to carbon dioxide and water from complete oxidation of glucose Oxidative phosphorylation when oxygen accepts electrons and becomes ATP during aerobic activity oxygen makes ATP over 30 glucose this is used for cell metabolism but muscle cell takes some and reserve it for body movements Special to muscle cells creatine kinase only in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells can take creatine molecule and grabs phosphate for it from hydrolyzed ATP Creatine and ATP creatine phosphate and ADP CP is a phosphogen donates phosphate back to ADP to make ATP unique characteristic High energy bond between creatine and phosphate so it can rephosphorylate ADP to make ATP Enzymes can catalyze a reaction in both directions does not participate in the reaction If high levels of ADP and CP enzyme reverses and products and reactants switch makes ATP and creatine Mitochondria powerhouse of cell where new ATP is made constantly Cycle creating phosphate shuttle Sarcoplasmic creatine kinase Creatine kinase at rest always seeing new ATP and takes phosphate off to transfer to creatine and make creatine phosphate store at rest in vicinity of myosin heads In movement do not have enough ATP for myosin heads creatine phosphate stored in large supply it runs out when in motion and ATP falling because it is being broken downso ADP is going up and kinase conducts reaction backwards to give myosin heads ATP Moves from mitochondria to myosin heads shuttling phosphates from ATP to reserve it for myosin head cycling make it when and where you need it Mitochondria CP store myosin heads get ATP creatine creatine kinase regulating all of this Stop slow down go anaerobic when run out of stores BIRDS EYE VIEW using aerobic capacity and glucose pyruvic acid to supply movement Glucose 6 carbon sugar starting product of glycolysis what body mainly uses end product of glycolysis is 2 pyruvic acids 3 carbon molecule made ATP in the processpyruvic acid goes to mitochondria Oxygen gives waste products of carbon dioxide and water 11 18 Muscle cells don t store ATP do store glucose and oxygen two reactions for glycolysis myoglobin glycogen Keep ATP at constant level benchmark for metabolism ATP provides energy to live for cells and is made fast at a specific time for muscle movement filament sliding creatine phosphate shuttle take high energy phosphate from mitochondria through creatine kinase to make creatine phosphate store for rephosphorylating ADP which comes after ATP is used to energize myosin heads Creatine kinase can travel in both directions high

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