UW-Madison POLISCI 106 - Final Exam Study Guide (14 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


This study goes over lectures 19-24, which cover the key points of China's and Mexico's current and past political and economic systems.

Study Guide
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Polisci 106 - Introduction to Comparative Politics
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POLI SCI 106 1st Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 19 24 Lecture 19 11 18 China I Three Types of Non Democratic Regimes Linz Juan Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes all non democratic other than that very different totalitarian sultanistic authoritarian Totalitarian Regimes power monopoly power concentrated in hands of individual or small group ruler s not accountable ruler s cannot be dislodged from power by institutionalized peaceful means strong ideology basis of legitimacy provides meaning historical purpose interpretation of social reality goal remake society mankind mass mobilization active mobilization for citizen participation passive obedience and apathy undesirable vehicle of mobilization single mass party and closely affiliated organizations other characteristics political violence widespread and systematic ex USSR esp under Stalian ideology Marxism Leninism power monopoly power concentrated in hands of one or very few members of CP mobilization CP key to mass mobilization society supposed to actively participate in building communism Sultanistic Regimes tyrannical arbitrary rule by individual and close followers power monopoly see totalitarianism no ideology little effort of legitimation mobilization no organized participation other characteristics pursues private not collective goals ex personal wealth of ruler often arbitrary use of power and violence ex Dominican Republic under Trujillo 1930 61 ideology none power monopoly power concentrated in Trujillo s hands key posts filled by family members and associates country private domain of leader mobilization no mobilization isolation lack of education apathy passive submission necessary for regime stability Authoritarian Regimes leader or small group exercises power within ill defined but predictable limits lacks arbitrariness of sultanism no power monopoly but limited political pluralism power is not fully concentrated dispersed among some political economic and social groups with some degree of autonomy but pluralism is limited groups not fully unconstrained no elaborate guiding ideology if any symbolic no extensive or intensive mobilization no systematic inclusion of the masses note significant variation between them ex Spain under Franco 1939 75 ideology early days quasi Fascism later no clear ideology or effort to remake society limited pluralism ex Catholic church controls education system ex Cabinet members have some autonomy mobilization weak party govt uses party not vice versa apathy desirable Maoism builds on Marxism Leninism but with significant amendments backbone of revolution peasants not urban workers blank slates to be instilled with revolutionary consciousness communism realized not through elites and bureaucrats but peasants revolutionary enthusiasm and mass struggle mobilized into permanent revolutionary movement present ruling group from turning bourgeois class struggle lack of sophistication desirable workers and intellectuals receive class education through agricultural labor Maoism ideal critical to break in early PRC alliance with USSR lean to one side the Great Leap Forward into communism rapid acceleration of the revolution forced industrialization mobilization of the masses the Cultural Revolution targets impure bourgeois elements party elites bureaucrats intellectuals after Mao s death 1976 departure from Orthodox Maoism Despite End of Maoism the basic organizational design of China s political system remains authoritarian Communist party state core assumption citizens must be led guiding principles of Communist party state guardianship and hierarchy plus in case of China idea of the mass line principles have been modified but largely still in place Party State I Guardianship describes relationship between Communist Party and society Vanguard Party that leads the way toward Communist utopia basis of legitimacy acting in the historical best interests of the people and translating them into policy that will lead to communism the mass line today CCP still the vanguard party but mass line de emphasized basis of legitimacy delivering the goods Party State II The Mass Line the theory party leadership not isolated from the mass public party leaders should maintain close links in ordinary citizens to educate the masses help party leaders know needs of masses policy is supposed to flow from the masses to the masses but mass influence on policy depends on its fit with the goals of the party Party State III Hierarchy strict hierarchy between a levels of organization and b party members factionalism punishable party discipline expected and enforced goal ensure that party acts as unified force responsive to top leaders today party leads society in politics but has retreated from regular life in most areas Party State Overall ideology less prominent and less coherent than in past same minor reforms to govt and party reforms and political changes have not led to fundamental system change Lecture 20 11 20 China 2 Formal State Institutions Formally a parliamentary system unicameral legislature fused executive and legislative unitary state largely ceremonial president judiciary with no power of judicial review But operates differently in practice party leaders and organizations matter most not highly institutionalized Legislature National People s Congress NPC formally most powerful organ passes laws elects and supervises government 2 987 members indirectly elected by provincial congresses for 5 years 2 3 CPC meets 2 weeks per year Standing Committee 175 members modifies legislation interprets law But power constrained by party Largely a rubber stamp but some recent assertiveness Executive State Council Government 35 full members responsible to NPC Premier Li Keqiang in power since 2012 members appointed by premier and then confirmed by NPC Standing Committee 10 generalists drafts legislation 25 ministry heads President Xi Jinping Formally quite weak elected by NPC appoints Premier and State Council but with NPC approval no formal veto In practice dominates state Communist Party Controls all state functions Leninist vanguard party 87 million members Fill most important state and non state positions General Secretary Xi Jinping President of PRC head of military Party Structure Formal power proportional to size Actual power inversely proportional to size National Party Congress 2 270 members different than National People s Congress meets once every 5 years elects top party leaders approves major

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