UH BIOL 1344 - Final Exam Study Guide (7 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Contains lecture notes from all the lectures covered in this exam. Includes key terms and definitions put out by the professor.

Study Guide
University of Houston
Biol 1344 - Hum Anat Physiol
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BIOL 1344 Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 19 27 Lecture 19 The Urinary System kidneys ureter urinary bladder urethra Kidneys paired organs outside peritoneal cavity surrounded by fibrous capsule perinephric fat renal fascia and paranephric fat which protects from mechanical shock Unilateral renal agenesis one kidney fails to develop bilateral renal agenesis neither develop Ptosis when the kidneys drop causing a kink in the ureter due to loss of adipose connective tissue usually in anorexics or old people Can result in renal failure Renal Calculi Kidney Stones causes radiating acute pain and a burning sensation while urinating can contain oxlate phosphates and sulfates Stones don t cause pain until they start moving Treatment can include lithotripsy pulverizes stones through an ultrasound type machine Chronic Renal Failure must get dialysis or a kidney transplant Intravenous Pyelography IVP uses radioactive dye to measure kidney function Dye flows with the blood to healthy areas of the kidney so whatever part of the kidney appears darker is the healthy area Functions of the Kidney 1 2 3 4 Removing nitrogenous wastes Blood Cell Formation kidneys secrete erythropoietin hormone to stimulate production Osmoregulation regulates levels of water electrolytes and ions in the body Bone Health calcium reabsorption phosphate excretion trigger vitamin D3 synthesis Lecture 20 Kidney Structure 8 15 lobes of the renal pyramids renal papillae minor calyces major calyces renal pelvis ureter urinary bladder Each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons Structural flow in the kidney goes Bowman s capsule proximal convoluted tubule thick descending loop of Henle permeable to water and sodium a thin ascending loop of Henle permeable only to sodium distal convoluted tubule collecting tubule collecting duct papillary duct then finally the minor calyx Leading from the other side of the Bowman s capsule are efferent and afferent arterioles There are two types of nephrons in the kidneys Cortical nephrons 85 in the short loop of Henle normally used to produce urine Juxtamedullary nephrons 15 in the long loop of Henle used in stressful situations creating highly concentrated urine Urine Formation 1 Filtration blood filtered in glomeruli creates glomerular filtrate which is similar to plasma in its makeup glucose amino acids albumins vitamins B and C water and ions such as sodium potassium chlorine phosphate 2 Reabsorption 99 5 percent of this filtrate is reabsorbed 3 Secretion secreted in distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct Lecture 21 Filtration small substances glucose amino acids urea potassium chlorine calcium and bicarbonate are freely filtered Large sized particles red and white blood cells are not filtered Regulated filtration is based on physiological need such as water needs Nephritis inflammation of the kidneys blood cells can enter the urine this is called pyuria Net Filtration Pressure simple diffusion due to blood pressure Glomerular Filtration Rate GFR urine concentration mg ml X urine flow ml min plasma concentration mg ml about 125 ml min or 180 L day but 99 of this is reabsorbed back into the body rather than being secreted as urine There is intrinsic and extrinsic control of GFR 1 Intrinsic mechanisms myogenic regulation which controls smooth muscles of afferent and efferent arterioles through vasoconstriction and vasodilation 2 Extrinsic mechanisms neural control sympathetic input epinephrine and norepinephrine secreted during stress the fight or flight response These bind with alpha and beta receptors Alpha causes vasoconstriction while beta causes vasodilation Lecture 22 Obligatory water resorption inside tubule of kidney is hypotonic so water goes out Osmotic diuresis large volumes of water are lost through diluted urine Hormonal diuresis no ADH or aldosterone is maintaining water homeostasis Osmolarity solute concentration liter of solution Osmolality solute concentration kg of solvent solvent is always water Reabsorption simple diffusion facilitated diffusion glucose flows from filtrate through PCT cell into blood primary active transport potassium sodium pump secondary active transport SGLT or sodium dependent glucose transporter Tubuloglomerular regulation macula densa cells detect concentration of filtrate if too concentrated this means flow through the nephron is too fast and the GFR is high To solve glomerular shrinks reducing filtration surface area and GFR decreases Reverse also happens Lecture 23 Transport Maximum Tm amount of substance reabsorbed per minute Renal Threshold physiological limit of reabsorption if a substance goes over this limit it spills out with the urine Blood Flow through the kidneys 1250 ml min but only plasma gets filtered so this is about 700 ml min going through glomerulus Because of GFR about 125 ml min actually gets filtered Counter Current Mechanism blood flow goes opposite of urine flow Micturition this is the act of passing urine and it is controlled by T11 L2 and the sympathetic nerve fibers There is the internal urethral sphincter which opens and closes involuntarily through the sympathetic nervous system Then the external urethral sphincter is voluntary because it is controlled by skeletal muscles and the parasympathetic spinal nerves When the bladder fills to 300 ml there is a desire to void the urine If the person does not urinate at this point the urge passes and the volume can then get up to 600 700 ml through distending the bladder Any more than this volume results in involuntary urination Lecture 24 Fluids body is average 65 water by weight Most of this is in skeletal muscles 2 3rds of water weight is intracellular fluid ICF and the other third is extracellular fluid ECF 2 3rds of the ECF is interstitial fluid while the other third is blood plasma Edema is the accumulation of water outside the cells Kwashiorkor is a condition which results in a swollen pot belly due to lack of proteins in the blood creating a hypotonic state This means that water leaves the blood and enters interstitial fluid creating edema Water Intake approximately 700 ml from food 1600 ml from drinking 200 ml produced in the body from metabolic processes Water Loss approximately 500 ml from sweating 300 ml from breathing vapors 200 ml from feces 1500 ml from feces So the total is about 2500 ml for both intake and loss Over hydration kidneys can make 16 ml urine min maximum So if more water is consumed blood can become diluted osmolarity of plasma can become less

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