Mizzou PSYCH 2410 - Final Exam Study Guide (6 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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PSYCH 2410 1st Edition Lecture 18 Infant Attachment Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 18 25 I Theorists During the first year of life infants develop attachment to primary caregivers physical and emotional Sigmund Freud mother child relationship is important for development o Drive Reduction Theory mother satisfies infant s primary needs ex food and as a result infant develops affection for the mother John Bowlby disagrees with Freud o Found that when children were separated they fell into despair depression o Determined attachment cannot be explained by drive reduction theory Renee Spitz studied deprivation in mothering o Studied orphans of felon mothers Found that more died when not in mother s care and had a lower IQ despite adequate nutrition Harry Harlow sought to examine the drive reduction theory with monkey experiment o Method separated monkey from mother can gave them one wire mother with food and one mother with cloth and no food o Results monkeys spent more time with cloth mother II Attachment Development Attachment relationship enduring emotional time between child and primary caregiver o Secure base from which to explore environment o Safe haven to retreat to during uncertainty Infants evolved to develop attachments because it promotes survival Four Phases of Attachment Development 1 Pre attachment birth 6 weeks innate signals bring Mom 2 Attachment in the making 6 weeks 6 8 months attend to more familiar people 3 Clear cut attachment 6 8 months 1 5 2 years actively seek comfort from caregivers mom is secure base distress at separation 4 Reciprocal Relationships 1 5 2 years increasing abilities to organize efforts to be near efforts communicate love III Infant Attachment Classifications Strange Situation Procedure standardized procedure for assessing differences in infant attachment o Method series of stressful separations from caregiver then reunions Measure infant behavior on reunion Secure uses parent as base of exploration uses parent as safe haven acknowledges caregiver on return reciprocal relationship with parent Insecure Avoidant do not use parent as base haven avoid parent upon return Insecure Resistant do not use parent as base haven no exploration before separation unable to be settled by parent upon return Disorganized confused contradictory behavior may exhibit fear of parent Lecture 19 Adult Attachment I Adult Attachment Classifications Use interviews to determine attachment o Interviews coded for coherence o Semi structured interviews about how you talk about them not what you say Secure Autonomous balanced and coherent narrative about early experiences regardless of whether described as positive or negative Insecure dismissing distanced from emotional content of the interview Idealize caregivers or normalize harsh experiences o Dismissing adults experiment Method administer interview while recording electrodermal response Results dismissing adults showed largest increase in electrodermal reactivity Insecure preoccupied enmeshed entangled in past experiences Insecure adults are unresolved with respect to loss abuse o Refer to slides for example interviews Answers dismissing preoccupied secure Fonagy experiment o Method interview when moms were pregnant strange situation when babies were one o Results 75 of time interview predicted infant attachment classifications II Mechanisms of Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment Caregiving sensitivity partially accounts for intergenerational transmission of attachment Shared genes adoptive study showed infant attachment was more similar to adoptive mother s attachment than biological mother s o Shared genes are not the cause Attachment bio behavioral stress regulatory system III Adult Attachment and Responding to Infant Distress and Non Distress Infant Distress non distress adult reactions experiment o Method listen to infant distress and non distress record physiological and behavioral responses note self reported emotions o Results sensitivity associations predate parenting experience NICHD SECCYD o Method take mothers sensitivity at 6 months infant attachment at 15 months o Results sensitivity to distress is a better predictor of infant attachment than sensitivity to non distress o Conclusion adult attachment is more strongly associated with responses to distress maternal sensitivity to distress is more strongly associated with infant attachment security Lecture 20 and 21 Gender Development I Social Learning Theories Basic assumption young children learn how to act like a boy or girl Observational learning parents peers media traditional gendered typed models division of labor in workforce and home o More time around same gender to observe gender o More attention to same gender models o children raised in less conventional families tend to be less gender typed Direct teaching via systematic differences in how parents treat sons and daughters Criticisms differences exists not all due to socialization o Children are born with gender consistent preferences Toy preference by 12 18mo II Social Cognitive Theories Kohlberg s Cognitive Developmental Theory o Basic claim children actively acknowledge gender in same way they construct other knowledge about the world 1 Gender Identity 2 3 years learn you are a member of gender category don t know gender is permanent 2 Gender Stability 3 4 years gender is stable over time not clear that gender is independent of apperances 3 Gender Constancy 5 7 years learn that gender is constant across situations Once achieved they can seek out models and learn behavior Imitation of same gender models is result of cognitive change o Limitations gender consistent preferences are there long before kids reach gender constancy Gender Schema Theory o Gender self socialization motivation towards gender consistent behavior means more knowledge of own gender o Identify own gender at 3 and begin to learn o Gender schemas memory of all you know of two genders are dynamic o Start simple in group out group then build on it Kids remember what they see same gender doing better more likely to encode events accurately when it is gender consistent III Evolutionary Theories Evolutionary view assumes differences between genders are selected because of adaptive advantage and mate selection Females contribute more to reproduction than males so females are pickier and males are more likely to look for multiple partners Lecture 22 The Family I Functions of the Family Reasons for families survival of


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