UNT BIOL 3451 - Final Exam Study Guide (20 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


A Study of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, Cancer, Recombinant DNA technology, and Genomics.

Study Guide
University of North Texas
Biol 3451 - Genetics
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BIOL 3451 1nd Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 19 27 Lecture 19 November 4 15 2 Spontaneous Mutations o Not natural due to an outside source o Three types of DNA base damage Depurination base falls out usually purine guanine or adenine Deamination oxidize amino group to double bond carbon keto group A T converted to G C Oxidative Damage Reactive oxidants cause chemical modifications in DNA o Superoxides o Hydroxyl radicals o Hydrogen peroxide o Transposons move within or between genomes Good because important for evolution lateral transfer of genes in same generation and can happen between different species Bad because bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics and can transfer that resistance 15 3 Induced Mutations o Increase rate of mutation via mutagens o Occurs in many forms Base analogs trick enzymes into making them into nucleotides thus becoming substitutes for purines or pyrimidines Increases tautomeric shifts and sensitivity to UV light Alkylating agents donate alkyl group to an amino or keto group in nucleotides which alters base pairing affinity transition mutations Intercalating agents chemicals with a shape that allows them to be wedged between DNA base pairs and unwinding DNA Some are used as stains ethidium bromide Adduct forming agents substance that covalently binds to DNA which alters its conformation and interferes with replication and repair UV light creates pyrimidine dimers that distort DNA conformation by pulling them together too much to where the bases can t line up correctly during replication errors tend to be introduced Ionizing radiation stable molecules obliterated into free radicals that can directly and indirectly affect DNA by ionizing molecules encountered X rays gamma rays cosmic rays More active than UV radiation Produces many chromosomal aberrations Less than 20 from human made sources 15 4 Single Gene allele mutations o Most gene mutations are polygenic caused by several genes that can cause monogenic diseases o 30 of time

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