UMass Amherst PUBHLTH 129 - Final Exam Study Guide (4 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


This discusses what we talked about since our last exam. Hope it helps you guys!

Study Guide
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Pubhlth 129 - Health Care for All GenEd: SBU
Health Care for All GenEd: SBU Documents
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Public Health 129 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Undeserved Populations What are health and health care disparities Refer to differences in health and health care between population groups Disparities matter because limits continued improvement in overall quality of care and population health and have unnecessary costs Hispanics Blacks American Indians Alaskan Natives less likely to be insured also low income individuals relative to whites and higher income Minorities have increased barriers to access care receive poorer quality of care and ultimately experience worse health outcomes Vulnerable populations Racial and ethnic minorities o Over 30 of US populations is minorities Disabled Have psychological problems Enabling Characteristics Insurance status uninsured o Poor and less educated work at part time jobs younger 25 40 minorities Homelessness o 3 5 million experience it Socioeconomic status Individual assets human capitals Mediating factors are associated with the use of health care services e g health insurance access to quality of health care Federal Initiatives to Eliminate socioeconomic disparities o Programs that have helped eliminate socioeconomic differences Community Health Center Program National Health Service Corps Health care for the Homeless Program Need Characteristics Mental health o Ranks second as a nationwide burden on health and productivity o Chronic illness disability Responsible for 7 out of 10 deaths HIV AIDS CDC estimates 1 million in US are living with HIV average cost of ART 15 000 a year Health Care for All Canada Health Care System National Health Service o Health care is provided and financed by the government through tax payments Many hospitals and clinics owned by the government some doctors are govt employees England Spain new Zealand o Social Health Insurance Uses health insurance system insurers called sickness funds usually financed jointly by employees and employers o Single player system Has elements of the two above but uses private sector providers but payment comes from govt run program that every citizen pays into Canada Taiwan South Korea No profit no marketing tend to be cheaper The Out of Pocket Model Market driven health care Most of the nations that are poor and disorganized to provide national health care US Health Care System of Systems o Maintains so many separate systems for separate classes of people Medicare Medicaid Employment based health insurance Veterans Native Americans Military Uninsured reduced by the ACA subsidized private health insurance and states that have choose to go with Medicaid expansion Canada Government and Politics Consists of 10 providences and 3 territories Largest providence in population is Ontario 12 8 million then Quebec 7 9 million Bicameral national legislature Capital in Ottawa o Senate Appointed by Governor General o House of Commons Supreme Court of Canada o 9 judges appointed by the governor general Canada Health Care System Government Role o Regionally administered universal public health insurance program called Medicare Public System Financing o Territorial Provincial federal tax revenue less than 25 comes form the central government Private Insurance Role o 67 buy coverage for non covered benefits There are no caps on cost sharing Canada Health Act 1984 Canada and US Health Indicators 2011 Population o Canada 34 5 million US 311 million Percentage of population over 65 o CA 14 7 US 13 2 Health Spending GDP o CA 11 2 US 17 7 Out of pocket HC per capita o CA 600 US 987 Length of Stay for Acute days o CA 7 7 US 5 4 Future of the US Health Care System Demographics o Aging Diversity Soon will be a minority majority population Tend to be a much younger population o Technology Major contributor to cost People really like the status quo if they re benefiting from it Will opposition if there is real fundamental change o Chronic Disease Obesity Beat out cigarettes at highest preventable death o Access Minorities undocumented individuals o Fragmentation of delivery of care Not well coordinated always been a problem There is no political agreement about the obligation to provide health care for all and one the political parties rejects that idea Public opinion can be the opposite the role that legislature and money and how the influences things why should we care about those populations who should be able to care for themselves or cant afford it Its very easy to influence and kill bills there s committees and subcommittees that influence these decisions which is why it can be so hard to pass anything in Congress Good luck in your finals

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