TAMU PSYC 315 - continuing group processes (3 pages)

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continuing group processes



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Psych 315 1nd Edition Lecture 21 Outline of Last Lecture I Group Processes Outline of Current Lecture II Continuing group processes III Group think IV Leadership Current Lecture Incestuous Amplification defined by Jane s Defense Weekly as a condition in warfare in which one only listens to those who are already in lockstep agreement reinforcing set beliefs and creating a situation ripe for miscalculation Everyone goes along with a group This term is used in the military In social psychology a similar condition is called group think If decision making groups are excessively concerned with seeking consensus among their members group think will emerge and a full rational analysis of the problem will not take place o Self censorship not saying anything because no one else is o Illusion of unanimity thinking that everyone agrees Antecedent Conditions of Group Think o High Group Cohesiveness o Insulation of the Group from outside sources of information o Lack of procedures for information search and appraisal o Highly directive leadership High stress with little hope of finding a better solution than the one favored by the leader or other influential group members Motivation of the Group Agreement Seeking Symptoms of Group Think o o o o Illusion of invulnerability Belief of the inherent morality of the group Stereotypes of outgroups Direct pressure on dissenters These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute o Self censorship o Illusion of unanimity Symptoms of defective decision making o o o o o o Incomplete survey of objectives Incomplete survey of alternatives Poor information search Failure to examine risks of preferred choice Failure to reappraise alternatives Failure to work out contingency plans Some examples of group think o Response warnings of imminent attack on Pearl Harbor in WWII o The Lyndon Johnson administration s decision to increase the number of soldiers fighting in Vietnam o The Kennedy administration s decision to let the CIA train Cuban refugees to o invade Cuba and then failing to provide air cover for the operation which was a total failure o The ill fated launches of the space shuttles Challenger and Columbia o In the movie 12 Angry Men one juror persuaded the other 11 to change their opinions form guilty to not guilty This raises the social psychological questions of how minorities in groups change the minds of majorities One thing they must do is argue their position consistently They must never waiver What can people with minority opinions expect when they do this To be disliked To be seen as having psychological peculiarities that explain why you disagree But sometimes your consistency and persistence will stimulate some group members to rethink their positions What else do minority opinion people need to be persuasive They need to project an air of self confidence What happens when someone from the majority defects and joins you in the minority o He or she becomes more influential than you in persuading more majority member to defect as well Once one or two defections occur there is often a bandwagon effect and many defections take place Leadership Personality Traits of Good Leaders There are some that are weakly correlated with leadership success intelligence extraversion desire for power etc but for the most part personality does not explain much about leadership success Leaders are not too different from the followers Just a little bit more intelligent Styles of leadership o Transactional Leaders make sure the trains run on time Keeping the group together and make sure they get work done Not interested in changing group for the better o Transformational Leaders set creative original long term goals for their organization and inspire organization members to work towards them Changing the group for the better They have a vision for the group and is able to communicate their vision effectively o Both groups are different not better than one another o Task oriented people are better in low control or high control condition Meaning only in the extremes o Relationship oriented leaders are good in the moderate level In between low and high control Gender and Leadership o o o o Leader prototype is comprised of masculine traits So women don t seem like leaders to some people Trends towards more acceptance of women as leaders Where are women most accepted as leaders


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