Mizzou PSYCH 2510 - Final Exam Study Guide (11 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Chapters 14 and 15

Study Guide
University of Missouri
Psych 2510 - Survey of Abnormal Psychology
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Psych 2510 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 19 20 Lecture 19 December 2 What are Cognitive Disorders Normal memory and cognitive changes occur with age and do not interfere with daily functioning However these changes may progress to more serious cognitive disorders such as delirium and dementia Thus cognitive disorders are mental disorders marked by severe problems in thinking and memory especially delirium dementia and amnestic disorder What is Delirium Delirium is often temporary and reversible condition where a person is disoriented and has trouble with attention concentration and memory Delirium may result from substance intoxication or medical situations such as anesthesia What is Dementia Dementia is a more serious cognitive disorder that includes chronic and irreversible declines in memory and other cognitive processes What is the most common form of dementia The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer s disease This is a progressive condition marked by cognitive deficits such as aphasia apraxia and agnosia and deficits in executive functioning What is Aphasia Aphasia is an impaired ability to use or comprehend spoken language as when a person has difficulty speaking or cannot understand what is being said to them What is Apraxia Apraxia is an impaired voluntary movement despite adequate sensory and muscle functioning as when a person can no longer tie shoes What is Agnosia Agnosia is an impaired ability to recognize people or common objects as when a person fails to recognize loved ones or basics items such as a spoon What is Vascular disease cerebrovascular disease Vascular dementia is dementia caused by a blood vessel problem especially a stroke People with this dementia often face a more abrupt and acute onset of symptoms but less cognitive impairment than people with Alzheimer s disease What is Parkinson s disease Dementia may be due to Parkinson s disease which is a progressive neurological disorder involving severe problems in motor functioning Not all cases of Parkinson s progress to dementia however such as with Michael J Fox Abnormal movements occur such as resting tremors lack of facial expression hypomimia poor quality of movement hypokinesia or lack of movement akinesia These are all problems related more with subcortical dementia slowed thinking etc versus Alzheimer s that is more related with cortical dementia What is Pick s disease Dementia due to Pick s disease which is the most well known of the frontotemporal dementias meaning deterioration occurs in the frontal and temporal brain lobes as indicated in the large gaps seen in this image Similar to Alzheimer s but normally have an earlier age of onset of dementia and personality and behavioral changes Account for 5 of all dementia cases What are Amnestic disorders Amnestic disorders refer to memory impairments caused by substances or medical conditions What is Korsakoff s syndrome Korsakoff s syndrome is an amnestic disorder resulting from long term thiamine deficiency which results from chronic alcohol use Ongoing memory problems can be severed and linked to confusion and disorientation How often does Dementia occur and is it often comorbid Dementia occurs in about 5 to 8 percent of older persons and many people with one form of dementia also have another form of dementia What are the Biological risk factors for cognitive disorders Biological risk factors for cognitive disorders include genetics neurochemical changes and brain features What are the genetic links to neurocognitive disorders Identical twins display more concordance for Alzheimer s disease than nonidentical twins Genetic changes in cognitive disorders specifically in Alzheimer s include chromosome 21 and amyloid precursor protein mutation chromosome 19 and apolipoprotein E and chromosomes 14 and 1 and presenilin 1 and 2 Sickle cell disease predisposes people toward a stroke a major cause of Vascular dementia APOE 4 is also likely present in Vascular dementia Parkin genes cause neuron loss and harmful accumulation of proteins which may cause Parkinson s disease Pick s disease may relate to problems of the tau gene on chromosome 17 What are the Neurochemical changes in cognitive disorders Neurochemical changes in cognitive disorders include low levels of acetylcholine serotonin norepinephrine and dopamine and high levels of L glutamate What are the Brain changes in cognitive disorders The brain changes in cognitive disorders often include neurofibrillary tangles senile plaques Lewy bodies atrophy and oxidative stress and free radicals What are Environmental factors that may also influence cognitive disorders Environmental factors that may also influence cognitive disorders are diets alcohol and tobacco use aluminum and cultural factors What kind of diet helps prevent cognitive disorders A diet high in antioxidants and fish and low in fat and cholesterol helps prevent cognitive disorders What kind of alcohol use and aluminum use helps prevent cognitive disorders Moderate alcohol use may be related to less dementia for those who are not already genetically predisposed but aluminum intake may relate to more dementia What cultural factors are related to cognitive disorders Alzheimer s disease is more prevalent among Western nations and vascular dementia may be more prevalent among Asian and other non Western nations Family history of dementia appears to be the better predictor of whether someone will acquire dementia What is the amyloid cascade hypothesis The amyloid cascade hypothesis refers to various key brain changes that can cascade or result from genetic and environmental factors to produce cognitive disorder Toxic buildup of beta amyloid proteins can lead to neuron damage and senile plaques Enzymes called secretases slice these proteins to better dissolve but in people developing dementia the betaamyloid becomes insoluble making it unable to dissolve and this creates senile plaques These plaques contribute to the development of neurofibrillary tangles and neurotransmitter changes The key question to ask is what leads to this build up of beta amyloid How can cognitive disorders be prevented Prevention of cognitive disorders will likely hinge on diet exercise cognitive stimulation medications and perhaps gene therapy Assessment What are Interviews Interviews are commonly used to assess people with dementia and their caregivers and topics often include recent changes in behavior thinking memory and longterm skills such as

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