VCU MGMT 310 - Chapter 18 Motivation (4 pages)

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Chapter 18 Motivation



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Chapter 18 Motivation

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Pages:
4
School:
Virginia Commonwealth University
Course:
Mgmt 310 - MANAGING PEOPLE IN ORGANIZTNS
MANAGING PEOPLE IN ORGANIZTNS Documents
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Chapter 18 Motivation Acquired needs theory The theory that individuals are driven or motivated by three needs the need for affiliation the need for power and the need for achievement Content theories The study of the incentives and needs that motivate people to perform in a certain way ERG theory The theory that individuals are motivated by three primary needs existence basic physical needs relatedness connection with others and growth personal development self actualization Equity theory The theory that people will compare their circumstances with those of similar others and that this behavior motivates them to seek fairness in the way they are rewarded for performance Expectancy theory The theory that employees expect that high effort should lead to good performance and that good performance in turn should lead to reward Extinction The idea that a behavior stops because it has ceased to be rewarded or punished Extrinsic rewards Rewards used to facilitate or motivate task performance that include pay promotions fringe benefits and job security Four drive theory The theory that fulfilling four drives the drive to acquire the drive to bond the drive to comprehend and the drive to defend underlies motivation and that the degree to which these are satisfied directly affects employees emotions and behaviors The drive to acquire Differentiates good performers from average and poor performers Ties rewards clearly to performance Provides competitive salary and benefits The drive to bond Fosters mutual reliance and friendship among coworkers Values collaboration and teamwork Encourages sharing of best practices The drive to comprehend Designs jobs that have distinct and important roles in the organization Designs jobs that are meaningful and foster a sense of contribution to the workplace The drive to defend Increases the transparency of all processes Emphazises fairness Builds trust Goal setting theory The theory that setting goals that are difficult but achievable is a significant motivator of performance Hierarchy of needs theory The theory that individuals have multiple needs that must be fulfilled in a specific hierarchical order to ensure the greatest level of satisfaction self actualization esteem Belongingness safety physiological Hygiene factors Job factors that are potential dissatisfiers that relate to physiological safety and belongingness needs These factors are the primary components that comprise the work environment Frederick Herzberg two factor theory Lawrence and Nohria four drive theory Intrinsic Rewards Rewards associated with doing the job that include interesting and challenging work self direction and responsibility variety opportunities to use one s skills and abilities and sufficient feedback regarding one s efforts Maslow Hierarchy of needs Motivation The desire stimulus or incentive to pursue a particular course of action Motivators The direct consequences of doing the job and the primary cause of satisfaction on the job Need for achievement The need to set meet and exceed goals Need for affiliation The need to interact socialize and develop friendships Need for power The need to seek opportunities for personal aggrandizement personalized power or the need to make an impact on and influence others socialized power Negative reinforcement The act of removing an aversive condition in response to a desired behavior Positive reinforcement The act of rewarding a desired behavior Process theories Theories that explain why people behave in ways to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their overall level of satisfaction after they have attempted to fulfill their needs Punishment The act of presenting an aversive stimulus in response to an undesired behavior Reinforcement theory The theory that positive and negative reinforcements can induce certain behavior Self efficacy The belief that one has the capabilities to accomplish organizational goals SMART Goals Specific Measureable Attainable Relevant Timebound Theory of operant conditioning The theory that both positive and negative reinforcement increase behavior while punishment and extinction decrease behavior Theory X The belief that employees inherently dislike work and need to be constantly monitored and evaluated to ensure that they do what is expected Theory Y The belief that employees are motivated to do their best and to work to their potential Two factor theory The theory that two conditions hygiene factors and motivators simultaneously act as drivers of satisfaction and dissatisfaction Hygeine factors Motivators Salary Achievement Security Recognition Work Conditions Challenge Achievement oriented managers Want to meet or surpass self imposed goals Accomplish something new Plan long term career advancement Provide little feedback Micromanage Are impatient with others Affiliation oriented managers Establish restore or maintain warm relationships Want to be liked Participate in group activities Avoid confrontation and negative feedback Worry more about people than performance Socialized power orientated managers Persuade people Provide advice coaching and support Focus on the team Work through others Are politically savvy and connected Maintain reputations


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