UT Knoxville PSYC 110 - Final Exam Study Guide (9 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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Pages:
9
Type:
Study Guide
School:
University of Tennessee
Course:
Psyc 110 - General Psychology
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Psych 110 Final exam Study Guide Chapter 1 Scientific Thinking Terms to know na ve realism confirmation bias hindsight bias Naive realism the belief that we see the world precisely as it is seeing is believing Confirmation bias seeking out evidence that supports our beliefs deny evidence that contradicts them Hindsight bias I knew it all along Overestimating how well we could have successfully forecasted known outcomes Apophenia vs Pareidolia Apophenia perceiving meaningful connections among unrelated phenomena Pareidolia seeing meaningful images in meaningless visual stimuli Theory vs Hypothesis Scientific theory an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural and psychological world Hypothesis testable prediction Scientific thinking principles 1 ruling out rival hypotheses more than one cause for something 2 correlation is not causation 3 falsifiability possibility that it could be shown false by an observation or experiment 4 replicability can it be replicated 5 extraordinary claims extraordinary evidence 6 Occum s razor the simplest answer is conclusion Chapter 2 Research Methods Experiments IV vs DV control group vs experimental group Independent Variable Variable that the experimenter manipulates Dependent Variable Variable that the experimenter measures Control Group Does not receive manipulation of the IV Experimental Group Receives the manipulation of the IV Difference between external and internal validity External the extent to which we can generalize our findings to real world situations naturalistic observations Internal the extent to which we can draw cause and effect inferences experimental designs Basics of correlation positive vs negative Positive both variables move in the same direction can be a downward slope Negative variables move in different directions Basic vs applied research Basic examines how the mind works Applied examines how we can use basic research to solve real world problems Chapter 3 Biology Difference between Broca s and Wernicke s Aphasia Broca Broken words prefrontal cortex Wernicke s Aphasia word salad temporal lobe Neurotransmitters Dopamine pleasure Serotonine mood sleep GABA inhibitory glutamate excitatory norepinephrine brain arousal Division of the nervous system sympathetic parasympathetic autonomic somatic Somatic carries messages from CNS to muscles controls movement Autonomic controls emotions and internal states Sympathetic fight or flight responses within autonomic Parasympathetic digestion sleep no threat Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception Terms sensation perception and transduction Sensation detection of physical energy by our sense organs perception interpretation of raw sensory inputs transduction Nervous system converts external stimulus into electrical signals within neurons Gestalt principles 1 proximity items close together tend to look like they go together 2 similarity items that are similar look like they go together 3 closure when only part of the image is present brain will fill in the rest 4 figure ground what is figure what is background Chapter 6 Learning Basics of the schedules of reinforcement Fixed Ratio Provide reinforcement after a regular number of responses Fixed Interval Provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once after a specified amount of time has passed Variable Ratio Response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses Yield the highest rate of response Variable Interval Response is reinforced after an unpredictable amount of time has passed Classical conditioning acquisition extinction and spontaneous recovery acquisition gradually learn or acquire the conditioned response extinction CR decreases or disappears when CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS spontaneous recovery seemingly extinct CR reappears if we present the CS again UCS UCR CS and CR Unconditioned Stimulus UCS A stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning during conditioning Ex food Unconditioned Response UCR Automatic response elicited by the unconditioned stimulus during conditioning Ex Salvation Conditioned Stimulus CS A neutral stimulus that when paired with an UCS elicits a similar response after conditioning Ex Bell Conditioned Response CR A response that is learned by pairing the originally neutral CS with the UCS after conditioning Ex Salvation Negative positive reinforcement punishment negative taking something away positive presenting something punishment trying to decrease behavior reinforcement trying to increase behavior Chapter 7 Memory Terms encoding storage and retrieval encoding getting info into the memory bank storage keeping info in memory retrieval reactivation or reconstruction of experiences Difference between decay and interference decay memory fading over time interference loss of memory from incoming info Difference between proactive and retroactive interference Proactive old information interferes with new information Retroactive New information interferes with old information Difference between elaborative and maintenance rehearsal and chunking elaborative rehearsal linking new information with previously known information ROYGBIV maintenance rehearsal repeating in original form parrot chunking putting info into meaningful groups CIAFBI vs IBFACI Primacy vs recency effect primacy tendency to remember things at the beginning of a list recency tendency to remember things at the end of a list Terms recall recognition and relearning recall generating previously learned information on your own short answer recognition selecting from an array of choices multiple choice relearning relearn info much more quickly Distributed vs massed practice Massed seen constantly over a short amount of time cramming distributed studying broken up into several short sessions over a period of time Much better Chapter 9 Intelligence Two types of general intelligence Crystallized vs Fluid crystallized knowledge and abilities gained by experiences increases in adulthood fluid natural ability to solve problems Uninfluenced by experiences decreases with age Sternberg s triarchic theory of intelligence 1 analytical book smarts logical reasoning school 2 practical street smarts real world smarts 3 creative writing art and music Eugenics movement 1 IQ testing became a means of identifying adults who were intellectually inferior 2 forced sterilization 3 mostly immigrants Original purpose of intelligence testing IQ To determine if children would do well in school Chapter 10


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