IUB SPH-M 333 - M333 - Exam 3 (15 pages)

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M333 - Exam 3



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M333 - Exam 3

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Pages:
15
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Sph-M 333 - Sport in America: Hist Perspectv
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Chapter 12 Play for Pay 12 03 2014 A tale of two cities Cleveland browns moved to Baltimore in 1995 o A new baseball park had been built for the Indians o A new arena for the basketball cavaliers o However ignored for the brown Baltimore colts moved to Indianapolis in 1984 From 1984 to 1995 Baltimore was not the host city of an NFL team A new expansion team in Cleveland by 1999 Art Modell permitted the expansion franchise to retain team colors name and 50 years of records Urban relocation redevelopment and promotion Fail to replace the 30 year old astrodome in 1997 o Houston Oilers moved to Nashville o Renamed titans in 1999 St Louis o Lost its football cardinals to phoenix in 1988 Arizona cardinals Los Angeles raiders o Oakland raiders moved to la in 1962 o Back to Oakland in 1995 Between 1953 and 1998 12 new franchises were created and nine The growth in the number of major league professional franchises in the past 60 years has reflected the doubling of the American population from 150 million to 308 million in 2010 In 1950 all major league franchises were located east of the Mississippi River and north of the Mason Dixon Line A half century later teams were spread across the continent In 1950 there were 44 major league football baseball basketball and hockey franchises in the US along with two Canadian hockey teams By 2010 that number had increased to 113 American and 8 Canadian franchises Construction of modern day sports facilities was often tied to efforts to revitalize declining central cities o Cincinatti Built separate stadiums for the football and baseball o New Orleans Super dome boom in hotel construction o Atlanta New ballpark indoor football stadium arena for hockey and basketball o Denver Coors Field upscale business and residential development Baltimore o Oriole Park at Camden Yards Inner harbor redevelopment project 70 000 seat stadium and sharing parking facilities The Economics of Organized Baseball In 1999 the New York Yankees were able to spend 77 million more than the Montreal Expos on players o By 2010 the Yankees had a payroll of 206 million In 1953 St Louis Browns moved to Baltimore it became the Orioles Boston Braves to Milwaukee it relocated again in 1965 and became Atlanta Braves In 1954 Philadelphia Athletics moved to Kansas City it relocated in 1968 became Oakland Athletics In 1957 after introduction of commercial jet fleets it reduced coast to coast travel time to 6 hours California became attractive to baseball executives due to air plans as well as new stadiums New York Giants relocated to San Francisco Brooklyn Dodgers relocated to Los Angeles o Drew 1 8 million fans in their initial season In 1962 the Dodgers opened the season in spiffy new Dodger Stadium and the attendance for the next three decades hovered annually near the 3 million mark The Dodgers and the Giants were replaced in New York by the Mets Washington Senators moved to Minneapolis St Paul and became the twins A new National League team was located in Houston o The Colt 45s renamed Astros in recognition of the location of NASA s Johnson Space Center New facilities offered the obligatory modern amenities such as enormous electronic scoreboards and replay jumbo screens luxury boxes and upscale foot and beverage service Taxpayers needed to take the responsibility of paying off debts of many millions of dollars on buildings that no longer existed Therefore managers of most the new sports venues have sought to extract additional monies from advertisers permitting corporations to place their name on the ballpark Baseball s Labor Disputes In 1965 the average major league salary was 12 000 o With superstars hovering around 100 000 In 1968 minimum salary increased to 10 000 and guaranteed players the right to be represented by an agent By 1975 minimum players salary up to 16 000 By 1980 the average players pay was 144 000 By 1991 the average players salary up to 891 000 By 2010 the average players salary was 3 3 million Marvin Miller o The major League player s association executive director Due to the strike in the middle of 1981 season 713 games had been cancelled with the loss of an estimated 72 million in ticket sales In the early 1990s several owners expressed their desire to establish some form of salary restrain or salary cap as existed in professional basketball and football Conflict between players and owners the 1994 season got into trouble unfortunately there was no world series for the first time in 89 seasons Angry fans retaliated attendance fell by 20 million from the 1993 season o Fans put the blame on both owners and players In 1998 fans returned to the ballparks and followed the home run derby between Sammy Sosa of Chicago cubs and mark McGwire of the St Louis cardinals In 1020 McGwire admitted in public that he had used steroids Oakland Athletics and the Minnesota Twins o Limited revenue but won divisions and competed for slots in the world series The Magic of Parity The National Football League Financial parity of all franchise that enabled the national football league to enjoy economic success in the front office and competitive balance on the field o Effectively with sharing of television fees and gate receipts o Between 1967 and 2010 28 different teams have played in at least one super bowl 1966 AFL and NFL were merged World Football League in 1974 disappeared after two season United States Football League in 1983 ceased in 1987 1994 the new collective bargaining agreement established a firm salary cap that limited total amount a team could spend on its payroll The wondrous world of Magic Larry and Michael National Basketball Association During the 1960s and the 1970s the league expanded into the south and west adding 21 franchises in all In 1967 American Basketball Association ABA o Red white and blue ball o Beyond 21 feet counting for three o Julius Dr J Erving In 1976 the NBA agreed to absorb four of the best franchise of ABA o New York Nets Denver Nuggets Indiana Pacers San Antonio Spurs Members of the Dream Team in 1992 Barcelona Olympics o First time US sent pros Earvin Magic Johnson o Won 5 Championships Larry Bird o Won 3 championships Michael Jordan o Endorsed by Nike o Fortune magazine estimated that he had generated 10 billion in revenues Always turn left Nascar takes the checkered flag National Association of Stock Car Automobile Racing Private family owned enterprise By mid 1990s the annual television revenues had exceeded 1 billion and its total viewing


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