IUB SPH-M 333 - M333 - Exam 2 (49 pages)

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M333 - Exam 2



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M333 - Exam 2

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Pages:
49
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Sph-M 333 - Sport in America: Hist Perspectv
Unformatted text preview:

Chapter 7 8 10 16 2014 The Essential Myth of Big Time College Athletics Campus administrators took control 1890 1910 Professional coaches replaced student captains Business managers precursor to athletic directors Primetime schools professional model Highest priority is winning British concept of amateurism Stratified society o The elite were born to their status o Only in a society where a hereditary upper class existed could the English amateur system work Sports Historian Ronald A Smith If college had truly been amateur sport it would lose contests and thus lose prestige If college acknowledged outright that professional sport it would lose respectability Be amateur and lose athletically to those were less amateur be outright professional and lose social esteem NCAA Until the mid 1950 s responsibilities were limited to writing rules for playing games and making a national presence In 1920s Lacked adequate jurisdiction over their members in matters of recruiting eligibility standards and financial aid for athletes Supervision and regulation of athletic programs was the responsibility of individual institution By 1920 faculties had largely given up any hope of abolishing big time football Financial incentives to lure athletes to campus was crucial to building a successful program Coaches were professionals that were paid more than senior professors o Including benefit packages Faculty oversight committees required that athletes had to be in good academic standing to represent their institution Coaches were primarily concerned with the best athletes Academic dishonesty remained an issue Support Off Campus Booster alumni On Campus students o Supported football because a wide range of campus social activities that were connected to the game Football Driving the Bus By 1920 s football was the driving financial force for athletic departments Attendance more than doubled People were willing to pay good money for a ticket Universities began to construct large stadiums o Institution encourage wealthy alumni and state legislatures to donate large sums of money to build memorials in the form of football stadiums to honor 63 000 Americans that lost their lives in France 1914 Yale Bowl completed 1921 Ohio State horse shaped stadium o 63 000 1924 Michigan countered o 73 000 By 1930 Seven additional stadiums o 70 000 seats Institutions with serious football aspirations had stadiums with 30 000 The sheer physical size of the stadium dwarfs the significance of the library laboratory and lecture hall 1926 Football s Golden Age The Twenties Harold Red Grange the most spectacular player of the era Running back at the university of Illinois Fans were thrilled by Grange s ability to elude tacklers for long American Sports Star Traditional qualities embraced by Americans o Strong work ethic o Abstention from tobacco and drink o A determination to overcome financial disadvantages o Gracious to his fans praise Millions would watch weekly newsreels being shown in motion picture theaters Grange dropped out of college and on barnstorming tour where he would receive half of the gate receipts Broke the myth of amateur college sports I m out to get the money and I don t care who knows it Played for George Hales bears attracted record attendance o 250k Businessman radio television football commentator after his football career Red Grange established the importance of big time college football in American popular culture Glenn Pop Warner Most creative coach of the period o Innovative offense formations and plays o Design shoulder pads and helmets o Numbers on back of jerseys o Created youth football program in 1929 Knute Rockne 13 years at helm of fighting Irish o Fabled football tradition Grew national fan base for former students o Subway alumni Dedicated fans who had neither attend the university nor set foot on the campus He was the American dream o US from Norway at 5 o Played football track o Chemistry degree Notre Dame Open Play Amazes Army Assistant coach at ND taught chemistry Fabricated story about Wabash Wanted to make ND the Yale of the west Playing a national schedule o Army and navy o USC 1919 o 9 0 1920 o Undefeated national champions Ended career with 5 national championships 10 16 2014 Reconstruction Civil Rights Act of 1875 Enforcement Act Federal law that guaranteed African Americans equal treatment o Public accommodations o Public transportation o Prohibited exclusion from jury service The Supreme Court decided the act was unconstitutional in 1883 Plessey vs Ferguson 1896 Supreme court validated segregation Separate but equal Similar History to Baseball Infant days of late 1800s o It was slightly opened to race With growth and profits and forming of corporate structure o It grew more segregated Football was not very profitable until 1920 s and 30 s Football s Infant Years 1880 s baseball had the nation s attention Nation s game of choice Before 1900 o Organized football was not played much outside of a few colleges and athletic clubs o The rules were constantly changing Princeton vs Rutgers 1969 o 25 players on each side 1882 o 5 yds in three tries 1912 o 10 yds in four downs President Theodore Roosevelt o New rules to improve safety Historically Black Colleges Universities HBCU s began playing football at the same time 1st game Tiny Biddle University vs Livingston College Thanksgiving Day 1892 Biddies 4 0 1 td 1890s many HBCU s had established football teams 1900 13 institutions Few whose colleges permitted African Americans to play Regional Practices Geographic regions had different levels of prejudice The south no integration The west no integration New England upstate NY Midwest o Where African Americans began to appear on white teams Pioneers at PWI 1888 Amherst College had the first African American player William H Lewis Played 4 years Elected team captain in 1891 William Tecumseh Sherman Jackson Joined Lewis in 1890 and 1891 Another African American didn t play at Amherst until 1908 Edward gray o Earned Walter Camp s Third Honor team selection All American Amherst Star Charlie Drew 1923 25 Football basketball and track star Elected captain of the track team Rare to have positions in athletic leadership Famous physician Perfect new technique in the storage of blood in WWII Harvard Nation s Football Powerhouse Powerhouse in 1890s Starred William H Lewis Same player for Amherst Graduated and admitted to Harvard Law School Standout player Walter Camp s Honor Team Professional and


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