UA BSC 109 - Final Exam Study Guide (4 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Discusses endocrine system, reproductive systems, aging, cell reproduction and differentiation, cancers, and genetics

Study Guide
University of Alabama
Bsc 109 - Intro Biology Non Maj II
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BSC 109 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 19 27 Lecture 19 List some classifications of steroid vs nonsteroid hormones Steroid hormones structurally related to cholesterol lipid soluble enter target cells bind to intracellular receptor activate specific genes to produce specific proteins slower acting than nonsteroid hormones minutes to hours Nonsteroid hormones structurally related to proteins lipid insoluble bind to receptors on target cell membranes work through intermediate mechanisms to activate existing enzymes may involve a second messenger within the cell such as cyclic AMP faster action than steroid hormones seconds to minutes What are the three hormones secreted by the pancreas what are their functions Alpha cells secrete glucagon which raises blood sugar and causes breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver Beta cells secrete insulin which lowers blood sugar promotes uptake of sugar by cells in the liver muscles and adipose tissue Delta cells secrete somatostatin which inhibits secretion of glucagon and insulin and regulates other hormones Lecture 20 What is the order of parts of the body food passes through from mouth through excretion Mouth pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine rectum anus What are the 5 basic processes that accomplish digestive system function Mechanical processing and movement secretion of fluids enzymes and hormones digestion absorption elimination of undigested material as feces Lecture 21 Describe the process of formation of urine Glomerular filtration aids in movement of protein free solution of fluid and solutes from blood into the glomerular capsule Tubular reabsorption means the return of most of the fluid and solutes into the blood Tubular secretion means the addition of certain solutes from the blood into the tubule What are the main organs of the urinary system Kidneys ureters urinary bladder urethra nephrons part of the kidney tubule renal vein artery Lecture 22 What is the route of sperm through the male reproductive structures Seminiferous tubules epididymis ductus deferens ejaculatory duct penis Name the parts layers of the uterus and their functions Endometrium supports fertilized eggs part of it soughs off during menstrual flow The myometrium is smooth muscle that expands during pregnancy and constricts during labor The cervix is the narrow opening in the lower part of the uterus that permits sperm to enter the uterus and allows the fetus to exit during birth Lecture 23 Describe the differences between fraternal twins and identical twins Fraternal twins are the result of ovulation of more than one oocyte each of which is fertilized by different sperm The twins are no more similar than two siblings and they may be different genders Identical twins occur when one oocyte is fertilized but it splits into two pre embryos before the 16 cell stage They must be the same gender and will look alike What are the characteristics of development during months five and six of pregnancy Fetal movement begins fetal heartbeat can be herd with stethoscope fetus responds to external sounds lungs produce surfactant and survival is possible outside the mother Lecture 24 What are some causes of infertility in men and women Men number and quality of sperm Women pelvic inflammatory disease endometriosis strongly acidic vaginal secretions decreased reproductive capacity with age miscarriage What are the bacterial STDs and what are their treatments What are the viral STDs name preventions if any Bacterial Gonorrhea antibiotics syphilis penicillin chlamydia antibiotics Viral HIV treatments but no cure Hep B vaccine available for prevention human papillomavirus vaccines to prevent cervical cancer Lecture 25 List some characteristics of benign tumors They can still kill you but are noncancerous and remain in one location They are a single welldefined mass and may be surrounded by connective tissue They can often be readily removed surgically What are the different types of cancer treatments briefly describe each one if not selfexplanatory Surgery magnetism photodynamic therapy don t need to know in detail Radiation targets the tumor but sometimes damages healthy cells Chemotherapy use of cytotoxic drugs to destroy cancer cells severe side effects Lecture 26 Name the 9 most common cancers Lung cancer colon rectal cancers breast cancer prostate cancer leukemia lymphoma urinary bladder cancer skin cancer uterine cervical cancer What are the ABCDEs of skin cancer which SPECIFIC type of cancer is this used for Used to detect melanoma skin cancer Asymmetry two haves of the affected area don t match Border border is irregular in shape Color varies or is black Diameter greater than 6mm Evolution change in size shape color or elevation new symptoms such as bleeding itching or crusting Lecture 27 What are the characteristics of sex chromosomes They are the 23rd pair of chromosomes They are NOT homologous X and Y chromosomes carry different genes males have one X and one Y chromosome while females have 2 X chromosomes The male parent determines the gender of the offspring Describe how chromosomes may be altered in number or structure Nondisjunction during meiosis failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate A gamete may end up with two copies of a chromosome instead of just one Down syndrome 3 copies of chromosome 21 resulting in distinct physical features developmental disabilities and in increased risk of trisomy with increasing maternal age It can be detected by fetal testing

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