TAMU ANSC 318 - Horse Nutrition and Feeding II (6 pages)

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Horse Nutrition and Feeding II

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Horse Nutrition and Feeding II


Concentrate Feed Requirements and specific energy requirements of horses

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
Ansc 318 - Feeds & Feeding
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ANSC 1st Edition Lecture 24 Outline of Last Lecture I Equine Digestive System Forages and Concentrate Feeds Outline of Current Lecture II Intake Tables III Concentrate Feeds Protein a Nutrient Calorie Ratios IV Concentrate Feeds Minerals a Calcium Phosphorous Ratio b Other Important Minerals V Concentrate Feeds Vitamins a Vitamin B1 b Biotin VI Mare and Foal Nutrition a Body Condition Score VII Types of Broodmares a Open or Maiden Mare b Pregnant Mares c Lactating Mares VIII IX Young Growing Horses a Foals and Weanlings b Yearlings Long Yearlings and Two Year Olds X Working Horses Current Lecture Horse Nutrition and Feeding II Intake Tables Relationship of Crude Fiber to Expected DE in Conventional and Fat Supplemented Concentrates Crude fiber feed tag Approximate DE Mcal lb DE Mcal lb with 4 5 added fat tag 7 8 fat 2 corn 1 62 1 72 4 1 55 1 65 6 1 45 1 55 8 1 35 1 45 10 oats 1 25 1 35 These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute 12 1 15 Typical Grain and Hay Intake Expressed as BW Intake BW Class of Horse Forage Mature Idle 1 5 2 0 Pregnant 1 0 1 5 Lactating 1 0 2 0 Weanling 0 5 1 0 Yearling 1 0 1 5 Light Work 1 0 2 0 Moderate Work 1 0 2 0 Intense Work 0 75 1 5 1 25 Intake BW Concentrates 0 0 0 5 0 5 1 0 1 0 2 0 1 5 3 0 1 0 2 0 0 5 1 0 0 75 1 5 1 0 2 0 Concentrate Feeds Protein act like a true monogastric during protein digestion Protein quality is critical particularly for growth SBM bet source of essential AAs CSM used but not alone Lysine first limiting AA crystalline sources synthetic can be used Urea can be tolerated may meet N needs microbial crude protein not successfully absorbed will not become toxic but cannot be utilized Dietary Crude Protein Levels Class of Horse Range in Crude Protein Mature Idle 8 10 Performance Riding 10 14 14 much more likely Lactation 14 16 Foals Weanlings 16 Yearlings 14 Two Year Olds 12 14 You Can t JUST Think About Protein Alone Everything is relative to dietary energy provided important to consider the nutrient calorie ratios in the diet Nutrient calorie ratios are expressed as g Mcal of DE Nutrient calorie ratios are important for protein AAs lysine and minerals Nutrient Calorie Ratios ESPECIALLY CRUCIAL FOR YOUNG GROWING HORSES to optimize growth to minimize developmental orthopedic disease type problems to meet requirements in reasonable amount of daily feed Recommended Nutrient Calorie Ratios Class BW lb DE Mcal d CP g d Ca g d CP Mcal DE Mature 1000 15 600 18 1 40 idle horse Lactating 1000 25 8 1294 50 8 50 Pregnant 1000 18 792 34 2 44 Working Horses Light 1000 18 8 750 22 9 40 Moderate 1000 22 5 900 27 5 40 Intense 1000 30 1201 36 6 40 Growing Horses Preweaning 300 13 715 29 1 55 Weaning 6 475 17 3 867 36 2 50 mo Yearling 12 715 21 3 956 34 1 45 mo Ca Mcal DE 1 2 2 0 19 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 6 Nutrient calorie ratio requirements of weanling horses in comparison to an oat grain alfalfa diet Nutrient Calorie Ratios g Mcal DE Nutrient Provided by oats alfalfa Required by weanling Protein 49 2 50 0 Lysine 1 8 2 1 Calcium 1 7 2 1 Phosphorous 1 2 1 2 Less than required by weanling Concentrate Feeds Minerals Supplemental Ca and P needed in more diets Ratio important minimum 1 1 Ca P ratio recommended 1 5 1 Ca P ratio many common feed ingredients have inverted Ca P ratios less than 1 1 Ca P calcium carbonate or limestone used to add only Ca to the diet dicalcium phosphate used to supplement Ca and P Ingredients with Inverted Ca P Ratio Feed Ca P Oats 08 34 Corn 05 27 SBM 35 63 Wheat Midds 1 1 02 Oat Bran 13 1 13 Other Important Minerals for Horse Nutrition Macrominerals Electrolytes supplemented to performance horses Na Cl K equine sweat is hypertonic more concentrated than blood Microminerals Cu Zn Mn important during growth reproduction Cu Zn Se important for maintaining effective disease resistance Ca P Ratio 24 19 56 1 12 Concentrate Feeds Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A added to diets at 1 000 2 500 IU lb Vitamin D added to diets at 10 of A Vitamin E added to diets at 80 100 IU lb cannot be toxic Vitamin K synthesized through hindgut fermentation Water Soluble Vitamins B complex vitamins some synthesized in hindgut Vitamin C synthesized from glucose Vitamin B1 Thiamin Actively involved in energy metabolism influences appetite Brewer s Yeast helps lower blood lactate levels normally synthesized in adequate amounts in the hind gut of horse but some hard working heavily stressed horses may require additional Thiamin supplementation Biotin Supplementation 20 mg day long term supplementation may improve hoof health in 1 3 or more of horses Mare and Foal Nutrition Body Condition Score subjective measurement of body fat reserves used to assess energy status body fat storage important to fuel physiological functions 1 extremely thin 9 extremely fat same system used in beef cattle Body Condition Influences Reproductive Performance at foaling recommended BCS of 6 benefits of maintaining proper BCS cycle earlier fewer cycles per conception get pregnant quicker higher pregnancy rate maintain pregnancy more easily no benefits to BCS 7 Types of Broodmares Open or Maiden Mare feed to meet maintenance requirements nutrition provided by medium quality forages or combination or low quality forage and concentrate should enter breeding season at BCS 5 to 7 Pregnant Mares 60 of fetal growth happens in the last trimester feed to meet maintenance requirements for the 1st 2 trimesters gradually increase concentrate in diet when approaching 3rd trimester carefully balance diet for protein and mineral needs Lactating Mares early lactation increase in energy CP and Ca requirements energy increases 90 protein increases 120 at foaling increase the concentrate portion of ration slowly Young Growing Horses Foals and Weanlings creep feed recommended late lactation does not support all nutrient needs nutrient requirements of foal differ from mare creep rations assume low forage intake should be palatable high quality 14 16 CP higher nutrient calorie ratio needed than the mare s diet weanlings have low forage consumption Developmental Orthopedic Diseases epiphysitis osteochondrosis contracted tendons degenerative joint disease possible causes genetics nutrient imbalance rapid growth early exercise Yearlings Long Yearlings Two Year Olds yearlings and older can meet moderate growth needs primarily with forage sales prep or exercise increased need for energy

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