UNC-Chapel Hill PSYC 250 - Final Exam Study Guide (9 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Lectures 21 - 25

Study Guide
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Psyc 250 - Child Development
Child Development Documents
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PSYC 250 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 21 25 Lecture 21 Moral Development November 13th Moral Development Moral Conscience An internal guiding system in the mind that leads children to do the things we believe makes them a good person Made up of 3 components o Emotional The moral emotions Guilt o emotional discomfort caused by wrong doing o Starts at about 2 years old Empathy o Ability to experience the emotions of others o Starts at about 2 years old Gratitude o Thankfulness recognition of goodness received from others o Guides child towards prosocial behavior Primary influences on the development of guilt and empathy 1 Fearful distress dimension of temperament o Children with more fearful distress develop guilt sooner 2 Quality of attachment o Development of moral emotions is well established by Warm positive mutually trusting relationship with caregiver Lack of power assertiveness techniques How does power assertive parenting undermine moral development Children become angry and fearful of parent Child externalizes the reasons for their wrong doing Children are less likely to develop an internal moral sense Primary influences on development of moral emotions 1 Caregivers modeling moral emotions 2 Caregivers provide explanations that focus on others feelings o Behavioral Self regulation of conduct to inhibit impulses resist temptation and follow rules Primary influences Child s committed compliance willingness to respond to caregiver modeling and instruction o This develops when relationships between child and caregiver is warm mutually trusting and responsive child s opportunity to be a role model caregiver s response to child s behavior o responses to good behavior o Clear reactions to wrong doing o Explanations of rules and consequences Techniques that undermine the child s development o 1 Power assertion o 2 Love withdrawal o 3 Empathy threats o 4 Indulgent permissive non intervention The ultimate goal of discipline is not controlling a child it is for the child to learn self control o Cognitive Internalized knowledge relevant to being a good person Concepts relevant to being a good person Prosocial behavior Antisocial behavior Reciprocity Fairness Rules kids want to know about rules they want them to be clearly defined because they don t know them Theories of development of moral cognition Piaget s theory o Focused on thinking about rules o 3 stages 1 Premoral 2 Heteronomous morality Preoperational rigid acceptance of rules blind obedience to authority 3 Autonomous morality Concrete operational and beyond Consider motives and intentions Rules are product of social interaction Rules are modifiable Kohlberg s Theory o Focused on thinking about justice and fairness o Assessment Heinz dilemma moral dilemma of does Heinz steal the medicine for his dying wife or let her die because he can t afford it 3 levels 1 Pre conventional level o Primary concern satisfaction of one s own needs personal consequences o Fairness is based on personal needs o Right whatever helps to avoid punishment and or gain rewards 2 Conventional level o Primary concern following social rules and norms pleasing others social order o Fairness is defined by laws and social norms o Right whatever follows the rules and is good for the group not just 1 person 3 Post conventional level o Primary concern rights and well being of all values and beliefs that transcend laws and self interests o Fairness is abstract and complex o Right whatever best protects human rights and freedoms o How can you relate the main themes of child development to the development of a moral conscience Nature and nurture play roles active and passive development of moral conscience and holistic development Lectures 22 24 Family November 18th 20th 25th Family as a System Features of family as a system Wholeness Order and organization Interdependence Reciprocal influence Stable but open to change Change over time adaptation Family system dynamics Boundaries on a spectrum from rigid boundaries some sharing no boundaries Hierarchies how family system is structured look at control and influence Alliances spectrum from desirable dysfunctional o Children s problems are not viewed as defects in the children Instead children s problems are viewed as symptoms of family system dysfunction Parenting Styles Parenting style parent s beliefs attitudes and behavior towards children 2 dimensions of parenting style o 1 Responsiveness aka acceptance warmth support acceptance o 2 Demandingness aka controlling control structure expectations Both are spectrums Responsiveness Acceptance Low High Demandingness Contro Low Uninvolved Permissive l High Authoritarian authoritative Authoritarian children internalizes more problems depression anxiety dealing with situations outside of their control Authoritative favorable child outcomes children develop social emotional competence self control Permissive results in negative outcomes lower emotional regulation tend to be bossy always get their way Problems making decisions and uneven social relationships o To improve responsiveness and acceptance Show love warmth and affection Have expectations Listen Notice good behavior and provide feedback o To improve demandingness control Provide structure Set clear rules and limits Be consistent don t change the rules or enforcing from day to day Explain Give clear simple instructions for the behavior you want the child to do Ex please sit on the chair instead of don t run around Be a good role model of good behavior Divorce Approximately 50 of US children will experience their parents divorce Differences between children whose parents have divorced and whose have not o Effects on children 1 Short term effects Compared to children of parents who have not divorced children whose parents have divorced have on average o Lower academic achievement o More externalizing behaviors others blame acting out o More internalizing problems blame yourself for bad things low self esteem depression anxiety self blame o Lower quality social relationships On average these differences are not that big 2 Long term effects As adults individuals whose parents divorced may experience o Lower psychological well being o More discord in their own marriages How common are these long term effects o Does individual have some serious social emotional or psychological problem in adulthood No Yes Did parents No 90 10 divorce during childhood Yes 75 25 3 Mediating Factors What variables influence

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