ISU PSY 110 - Final Exam Study Guide (18 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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PSY 110 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 1 What is psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes What are the goals of psychology 1 2 3 4 Description Explanation Prediction Influence What is behaviorism The study of behavior because behavior is observable and measurable What is psychoanalysis Human mental life is like an iceberg humans do not control their thoughts feelings and behavior What is humanistic psychology It focuses on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for growth choice and psychological health What is positive psychology The scientific study of psychological characteristics ex optimism that enable individuals and communities to thrive in the face of adversity What is cognitive psychology It sees humans as active participants who Seek out experiences Alter and shape experiences Use mental processes to transform info in the course of their own cognitive development What is evolutionary psychology It focuses on how human behaviors required for survival have adapted when faced with environmental pressures through evolution What is biological psychology Looks for links between specific behaviors and particular biological factors that often help explain individual differences What is sociocultural psychology It emphasizes social and cultural influences on human behavior and stresses the importance of understanding those influences when interpreting the behavior of others What is the systems perspective Multiple factors work together holistically What is the behavior perspective Environmental factors influence us What is the psychoanalytic perspective Emotions unconscious motivation and early childhood experiences influence us What is the humanistic perspective Subjective experiences and intrinsic motivation to achieve self actualization influence us What is the cognitive perspective Mental processes influence us What is the evolutionary perspective Inherited traits that enhance adaptability influence us What is the biological perspective Biological structures processes and heredity influence us What is the sociocultural perspective Social and cultural variables influence us What is correlation A mutual relationship or connection between two or more things What is the placebo effect A participant s response to the treatment is due to his or her expectations about the treatment rather than to the treatment itself What is random assignment Selecting participants using a chance procedure or random number generator to guarantee that each participant has an equal probability of being chosen What is an independent variable The variable that the researcher believes causes a change in some other variable What is a dependent variable The variable that is changed or affected by the independent variable What is a control group It is exposed to the same experimental environment as the experimental group but not given the treatment What is the double blind technique Neither the participants nor the researchers know who is getting what treatment Chapter 2 What is a neuron A specialized cell that conducts impulses through the nervous system What are neurotransmitters Chemicals that facilitate or inhibit the transmission of impulses from one neuron to the next What is a cell body soma It contains the nucleus and carries out metabolic functions of the neuron What are dendrites The primary receivers of signals from other neurons What is an axon The slender tail like extension of the neuron that sprouts into many branches What are axon terminals Bulbs at the ends of axons to send neurotransmitters What is the hindbrain It controls heart rate respiration BP coughing and swallowing and many other vital functions What is the midbrain It acts primarily as the relay station between the hindbrain and forebrain What is the forebrain The largest part of the brain where cognitive and motor functions are controlled planning memory logic self awareness organization etc What is the frontal lobe It contains the motor cortex and Broca s area accomplishes executive processing personality function voluntary body movement learning cognitive events and speech production What is the parietal lobe Lies directly behind the frontal lobe Involves the reception and processing of touch stimuli and includes the somatosensory cortex What is the temporal lobe Involves reception and interpretation of auditory stimuli it contains the primary auditory cortex and Wernicke s area It receives sound inputs from both ears and registers them in the cerebral cortex What is the occipital lobe The region of the brain that interprets visual info What is plasticity The capacity of the brain to adapt to change Chapter 3 What is sensation The process through which senses pick up visual auditory and other sensory stimuli and transmits them to the brain What is perception The process by which the brain actively organizes and interprets sensory information What is inattentional blindness A phenomenon where we shift our focus from one object to another and fail to notice changes in objects to which we are not directly paying attention What is the cocktail party phenomenon Auditory attention focuses on info that is personally meaningful What is bottom up processing Info driven processing in which individual components or bits of data are combined until a complete perception is formed What is top down processing Info processing where previous experience and conceptual knowledge are applied to recognize the whole of a perception and thus easily identify the simpler elements of the whole Chapter 4 What is the restorative theory The function of sleep is to restore the body and mind restoration of energy and consolidation of memory occur during sleep What is the circadian theory Sleep evolved to keep humans out of harm s way at night What is the psychodynamic theory Manifest and latent content are key components What is the difference between manifest and latent content Manifest content is content of a dream as recalled by the dreamer whereas latent content is the underlying meaning of a dream What is the cognitive theory Dreaming is thinking while we re asleep What is meditation It is used to control emotions and lower BP Chapter 5 What is classical conditioning A type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another What is an unconditioned stimulus It elicits an unconditioned response without learning What is an unconditioned response Response elicited by an


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