ISU PHY 102 - Final Exam Study Guide (5 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Study Guide
Illinois State University
Phy 102 - Atoms to Galaxies
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PHY 102 Final Study Guide I Chapter 1 Chapter 3 a Difference between scientific knowledge and unsubstantiated belief b Ways we know rather than merely believe c Heliocentrism and geocentrism i Homocentric spheres of Eudoxus ii Ptolemaic model including epicycles and deferents and how they explained the varying lengths of the seasons equants d Aristotle s arguments against Earth s Motion e Proofs of the size Eratosthenes and shape of the earth f Copernican Tychonic and Keplerian models g The telescope observations of Galileo and how they crushed the Ptolemaic model but did NOT prove heliocentrism h The trial of Galileo including special reading i Empirical evidence not considered because this was not a trial of science rather a trial of authority ii Galileo was suspected of heresy because he threatened the Greek basis for the existence of God and he did not take the Bible literlaly i II Kepler s 3 laws of planetary motion Graphs from Chapter 4 a Role of Galileo in creating modern empirical science claims based on observable evidence b Constant and accelerated motion graphs i Slope intercept area under lines or curves ii Equations and definitions 1 x x0 vt a Vf 3 m s A 1 m s T 2s 2 v v0 at constant acceleration III Chapter 6 a Differences between vectors and scalars i Displacement D and distance d b Velocity and speed Distinctions instantaneous and average speed or velocity V x t S d t c The effect of acceleration upon velocity d How to calculate average speed IV Chapter 7 a Newton s 3 laws of motion i Law of inertia F ma ii F mv t leads to impulse momentum relation 1 F change in time m change in velocity iii How a horse CAN pull a cart despite third law b Solving problems using these laws of motion c Momentum p mv d Solving problems using conservation of momentum principle p i pf V Chapter 8 a Work Energy Relationship Fd change in E not confused with impulse momentum relationship b Conservation of energy Ei Ef c Energy and power definitions i Ke mv2 ii PEg mgh iii PEe 1 2kx2 iv P E t VI Chapter 9 a Newton s law of universal gravitation was derived from a study of the moon s orbit in comparison to the fall of an apple b W mg where g GM r2 9 81 m s2 c Fg GM r2 d PEg GMm r VII Chapter 11 a Definitions of wave forms transverse and longitudinal b Definitions i Amplitude wavelength frequency speed period ii T 1 f and lamda f v iii Note well that v c 3 x 108 iv Polarization interference diffraction v Doppler effect 1 Red shifted if away blue shifted if toward us VIII Chapter 12 a Evidence for and charges b Coulomb s law c Electric fields i Action at a distance d field lines e F Eq field strength IX Chapter 37 a Evidence for the big bang i Hubble s Law ii Expansion Age iii Background radiation b Matter formed according to E mc2 c Radiation decoupled from matter and this is seen from the origin of background radiation d Early Protons and Neutron fused to form He nucleus via a proton proton reaction e The universe was 90 H and 10 He by number f The Jeans mass constitutes the minimum amount of mass required g Collapses of smaller clouds are helped by exploding stars compression of magnetic fields h 3 Major Problems i Flatness Why do we have a flat universe if the Big Bang created a non flat universe ii Horizon Problem 1 The cosmic microwave background is uniform but there are variations 2 Multiple Universes can exist iii The structure problem 1 Homogeneity and Isotropy is not correct as shown in cosmic background radiation i Inflationary Cosmology i Between 10 34 and 10 32 seconds after the Big Bang the universe grew from the size of a nucleon j Star Death i 3 possible end states 1 White Dwarfs low mass stars core becomes larger and hotter 2 Neutron Stars Medium stars produced during a supernova 3 Black Holes High mass produced in supernova but core collapses

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