WVU PSYC 281 - Exam 4 Study Guide (6 pages)

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Exam 4 Study Guide

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Exam 4 Study Guide


These notes covers almost all of chapter 12 and different neuro-developmental, conduct, and elimination disorders.

Study Guide
West Virginia University
Psyc 281 - Intro to Abnormal Psychology
Intro to Abnormal Psychology Documents
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PSYC 281 1st Edition Exam 4 Study Guide 11 13 Chapter 12 Neurodevelopmental disorders o Intellectual Disability o Specific Learning Disorder o Autism Spectrum Disorder Disruptive impulse control and conduct disorders o Conduct Disorder o Oppositional Defiant Disorder Elimination Disorders o Enuresis o Encopresis What does abnormal look like in children Childhood adolescence are stages of life o Physical cognitive and emotional development Development of emotion o Recognition of basic emotions subtle emotions Psychological disorders expressed differently in childhood than they are in adulthood o Ex Worry in childhood Maturation may eliminate some symptoms but some of are lifelong IQ and Intellectual Disability Remember IQ scores are on a normal curve Mean 100 Normal 85 115 DSM IV o Mental retardation instead of ID o IQ 70 MR o Below average intelligence and functional abilities Intellectual Disability ID DSM 5 No single test of cognitive functioning should be used to determine diagnosis MR is now an obsolete term Diagnosis of intellectual disability requires 1 Deficits in intellectual functioning 2 Deficits in adaptive functioning 3 domains Conceptual language writing math Social empathy social judgment friendship Practical money organization job skills 3 Onset before 18 yrs Clicker Intellectual disability is currently determined solely on IQ T or F o False Christina is 13 she cannot dress herself She also has poor hand eye coordination speaks in simple sentences but is good natured and friendly Should she be diagnosed with ID o Probably Four subtypes of Intellectual Disability DSM IV Mild o IQ 50 55 to 69 Moderate o IQ 35 40 to 50 55 Severe o IQ 20 25 to 35 40 Profound o IQ below 20 or 25 Functional Impairment About 1 3 of general population has an ID o 85 mild disability range ID more prevalent in boys than girls Racial differences in IQ scores are controversial o IQ tests not culturally fair Least restrictive environment o Supported employment Help them maintain jobs and to develop the skills they need to keep it o Sheltered workshops Specific setup that s meant for the certain disability that person has Example someone has a disability in math so their workshop will focus on something like reading something they can do o Mainstreaming Children with disabilities included in regular classrooms Is mainstreaming a good idea Genetic Causes of Intellectual Disability Down syndrome o Cause Three 21 chromosomes in every cell usually 2 Plaques and tangles like in Alzheimer s o 1 in 1 000 children are born with Down syndrome o Distinctive facial features o Mild moderate ID o Features Phenylketonuria PKU o Lack enzyme to break down phenylalanine o Accumulation in body causes abnormalities o Screened for at birth in U S o Treated with special low protein diet o 01 of population Fragile X Syndrome o Most common inherited cause of ID o DNA makes too many copies of itself turns off gene on X chromosome o Cells do not make necessary protein o ID behavioral problems o Half as common in girls Girls XX Boys XY Girls have spare X chromosome 1 in 4 000 males 1 in 8 000 females Clicker Why might girls be less likely than boys to have Fragile X Syndrome o Because they have an extra x chromsome Environmental Causes of ID Pre natal factors o Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS One of the leading causes of intellectual disabilities in kids o Malnutrition o Infection o Premature birth Oxygen cut off during birth Post natal factors o Lead exposure Cultural familial disability o Mild ID more common in people of lower SES Treatment of ID In the past institutionalization was common Now 90 of people with ID live with family or in a group home Not reversible but can learn skills o Shaping Doing something and giving a reward over and over o Chaining Teaching someone a skill in small steps http www youtube com watch v XLG2NMXqyl8 Medication used for symptoms such as aggression attention problems Specific Learning Disorder Academic achievement below expectations o Child has average above average intelligence With impairment in 1 of the following 1 Reading Sometimes called dyslexia Most common of the learning disorders Reading achievement significantly lower than what would be expected for child s age intelligence educational level Oral reading errors Reading slowly Problems with reading comprehension Problems with spelling Caused by problems recognizing and producing sounds phonemes that are put together to make words Problems sounding out words 2 Mathematics Sometimes called dyscalculia Diminished ability to understand mathematical terms operations or concepts Problems recognizing or copying numbers or signs Problems with mental math 3 Written Expression Sometimes called dysgraphia Problems composing grammatically correct sentences Frequent grammatical punctuation spelling errors Problems writing coherent paragraphs No problems expressing ideas orally 5 10 of school aged children are diagnosed o 2 8 of these with Reading type Learning Disorders Etiology Treatment Etiology o Abnormal brain functioning Not one neurocognitive impairment but many o Moderate genetic heritability 71 concordance for MZ twins 49 concordance for DZ twins Many genes involved Clicker Specific learning disorders probably arise from a single neurological abnormality T or F o False Specific Learning Disorder Impairment 40 of children with learning disorders drop out of school o Diminished job prospects Demoralization low self esteem Comorbid ADHD behavioral disorders depression anxiety Children with mild symptoms hard to identify and may be mislabeled Clicker Children with mild symptoms are hard to identify and may be mislabeled T or F o True Because some symptoms overlap look like another disorder

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