UNC-Chapel Hill PSYC 101 - Final Exam Study Guide (14 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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PSYC 101 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide FINAL EXAM PSYCHOLOGY 101 FALL 2014 REVIEW SHEET The final examination will be on the following topics 55 items Social Behavior Psychological Disorders and Treatment of Psychological Disorders The exam will be held on Thursday December 11th from 4 00 pm until 7 00 pm in our regular classroom Any material that is covered in class notes videos and exercises is fair game so study your notes thoroughly In fact if you study your notes cold then you should do very well on the final I found a great quote from the legendary basketball coach John Wooden which I thought I d share with you as I think it is a valuable lesson Be more concerned with your character than your reputation because your character is what you really are while your reputation is merely what others think you are Holly Kim Nolan and I have really enjoyed working with you this past semester We wish you all the best in the future Good luck on the exam Social Behavior 1 Be familiar with the studies discussed in class on conformity obedience altruism and social loafing 2 What factors influence conformity obedience altruism and social loafing Conformity Yielding to real or imagined social pressure Asch conformity studies https www youtube com watch v sno1TpCLj6A https www youtube com watch v uuvGh n3I M Group size Peaks around 7 6 members and then levels off Unanimity Normative conformity when you want other people to accept you or like you Why do we conform To get the information right To be liked What factors influence conformity Presence of an ally Obedience is following a direct command usually from someone in a position of authority Milgram 1963 the effects of punishment on learning Teachers learners Real participants staged participants https www youtube com watch v yr5cjyokVUs Some factors that affected the punisher Can t see the person being hurt Responsibility Doctor in charge Credibility Why do we obey We ve been socialized to do so for so long Helps you feel liked and accepted Feels like were doing something right Altruism involves the unselfish concern for other people It involves doing things simply out of a desire to help not because you feel obligated to out of duty loyalty or religious reasons Social loafing The tendency to exert less effort when working on a group task in which individual contributions cannot be monitored Ringelmann effect the tendency for individual members of a group to become increasingly less productive as the size of their group increases o Anonymous social loafing o Class ex pulling the rope individually and with other people Why this happen Diffusion of responsibility Decreased evaluation apprehension When you perceived that your efforts don t matter When you don t care about the group or the task o How do you reduce social loafing Increased ability to identify specific individuals Increasing group members perceived importance Increase involvement rotate roles Set individual goals Smaller groups Collectivistic societies 3 What factors play a key role in short term attraction and long term relationships Attraction Physical Attractiveness Refers to positive feelings about another person Physical attractiveness is very important but it is differentially important according to gender Male care more Tindr Video https www youtube com watch v 2alnVIj1Jf8 Tindr Video https www youtube com watch v iUy3 kBme4M https www youtube com watch v 2aTYuFJiGzw Males and females of approximately similar physical attractiveness have a tendency to be of similar attractiveness Factors of similarity Age race religion social class personality education intelligence and attitude We don t know if similarity causes attraction or opportunity of causes attraction Proximity how close you are to a person Functional distance refers to how opportunities you have to interact with each other People who lived next to a stairwell would have more interactions with their neighbors The Mere Exposure People s tendencies to like things they have seen before Scientist Zonionc Just because they ve seen something more they would like it more Reciprocity we like people who like us back People can attribute arousal to situations 4 Halo Effect occurs when observers have an impression of a person place brand etc influences how they feel about it Be familiar with the various types of attributions discussed during Nolan s lecture Attribution Are inferences that people draw about the causes of events of others behavior and their own behavior Meaning making Locus of cause of behavior Internal attribution cause a behavior to personal disposition traits abilities and feelings Ex your friend s house is foreclosing he is bad with money The reason for a particular behavior is the person External attribution The causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints Ex your friend s house is foreclosing because of economic climate Stability of causes permanence Unstable External Luck chance opportunity Stable External Task difficulty Unstable Internal Effort mood fatigue Stable Internal The observee is most likely to make external attributions while observers are the opposite Leads to Fundamental Attribution Error is people s tendency to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics to explain someone else s behavior in a given situation rather than considering external factors Jones and Harris Actor Observer bias If you re the person doing the behavior you re more likely to make external attribution Self serving bias explains the errors that one makes when forming attributions about the behavior of others Gender bias women who are successful at male task are often seen as lucky or over achievers Situational Attribution Individualism vs Collectivism Budweiser commercial https www youtube com watch v 3BkIh1R5utY Looked for this link everywhere Ugh 5 6 7 What are the components of attitudes How do the various dimensions of attitudes relate to one another How are attitudes acquired Attitude an evaluation of a person place a thing or event Ex Preference of a cat or a dog Can be negative or positive Affect emotions Behavior predisposing to act Avoid spending time with cat Cognition beliefs and ideas schema Attitude Dimensions Strength The stronger the attitude the less likely it will be to change Accessibility The time it takes for an attitude to come to mind Ambivalence Attitude is not completely positive or negative Falling in between On the fence Highly ambivalent attitudes are


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