Mizzou PSYCH 2310 - Exam 4 Study Guide (6 pages)

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Exam 4 Study Guide

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Exam 4 Study Guide


Chapters 5, 13, 14, 15, and 16

Study Guide
University of Missouri
Psych 2310 - Social Psychology
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Psych 2310 1st Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures 18 23 Lecture 18 November 18 How do evolutionary questions help us survive o What is the difference between traditionalist social and cross cultural psychologists on the mind o These questions help us to make sure our offspring can carry on our genes These questions consist of things like if I have to save my child or someone else s who would I save This is an innate tendency that helps certain genes survive while others do not Traditional social psychologists believe that the mind is a blank slate We learn as we grow and we have little software before this Cross cultural psychologists believe that people have different minds more than we previously believed Are gender differences learned or innate o Traditionalist social psychologists say they are learned It is important to consider that the different body constructions of the two genders lead them to the role they are assigned It is also important to look at how they are socialized as they grow up Vocab Natural selection Evolutionary process where nature automatically selects traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in environments Evolutionary psychology Uses natural selection to formulate and test hypotheses abut human nature and behavior Culture Enduring behaviors ideas attitudes and traditions developed and shared by large groups of people and transmitted through generations Sexual selection process Process by which gender differences evolve due to within sex competition Genders polarize because of evolution Interaction A relationship in which the effect of one factor such as biology depends on another factor like environment Gender role A set of behavior expectations for males and females Androgynous Mixing masculine and feminine characteristics Aggression Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone Personal space the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies Its size depends on our familiarity with whoever is near us Norms Standards for accepted and expected behavior Prescribe proper heavier Lecture 19 November 20 What is the 3 stage model for why we help o Notice the person needs help interpret the event assume responsibility What increases helping o Creating empathy for victim modeling altruism educating people about things like the bystander effect guilt for not helping Foot in the door phenomenon happy moods increase helping bad moods like guilt and low self esteem increase helping certain personality traits Vocab Egoism Underlying ever present motivate to increase our own welfare The opposite of altruism Altruism Motive to increase another s welfare without regard for our own Social exchange theory Egoistic theory which says human interaction tries to maximize rewards and minimize costs Empathy Feeling compassion for ones distress Reciprocity norm We help people who will help us Social responsibility We help people who need it Bystander effect the more people around an event the less people that will help Social capital The mutual support and cooperation enabled by a social network Kin selection The idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one s close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes Door in the face technique Strategy for gaining a concession After someone first turns down a large request the same requester counteroffers with a more reasonable request Moral exclusion the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness Moral inclusion is regarding others within one s circle of moral concern Over justification effect Result of bribing people to do what they already like doing they may then see their action as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing Lecture 20 November 25 What creates incompatibility o True incompatibility social dilemmas misperception and simplistic thinking How do we increase cooperation o Create a group identity appeal to altruistic norms use authority to make rules punish if necessary forgive when opponents repent make cooperation more profitable and be nice at first Vocab Conflict involves perceived incompatibility of actions or goals Zero sum game More for me less for you Mirror image effect People think the same negative things about that their enemies that they think about them Prisoner s Dilemma Each person arrested has the choice whether to say they are both guilty or neither are guilty These are the outcomes Tragedy of the commons Some keep taking more resources than allotted to them until the common resource disappears Allman s experiment He asked people to either ask for 20 or 100 dollars If less than 20 percent asked for 100 he would actually pay This did not happen because people are greedy Take some dilemmas People take more than they should Give some games People don t give enough to a common resource Social trap dilemmas A situation in which the conflicting parties by each rationally pursuing its self interest become caught in mutually destructive behavior Peace A condition marked by low levels of hostility and aggression and by mutually beneficial relationships Non zero sum games Games in which outcome need not sum to zero With cooperation both can win with competition both can lose Equal status contact Contact on an equal basis Just as a relationship between people of unequal status breeds attitudes consistent with their relationship so do relationships between those with equal status Thus to reduce prejudice interracial contact should ideally be between persons equal in status Superordinate goal A shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort a goal that overrides people s differences from one another Bargaining Seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation between parties Mediation An attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions Arbitration Resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement Integrative agreements Win win agreements that reconcile both parties interest to their mutual benefit GRIT Acronym for graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction A strategy designed to de escalate international tensions Lecture 21 November 27 Why is this theory positive o Why is this theory negative o The reminder of death helps us live morally and helps motivate us to be successful This gives us a fragile worldview and the reminder

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