UNT SPHS 2015 - 11BB Hearing Disorders in Children and assessment F13(1) (41 pages)

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11BB Hearing Disorders in Children and assessment F13(1)



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11BB Hearing Disorders in Children and assessment F13(1)

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Pages:
41
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Sphs 2015 - Nat Comm Dis
Unformatted text preview:

01 16 19 1 Causes of Hearing Disorders in Children Congenital Acquired Hearing loss present at Hearing loss after birth at birth Can be genetic Can be a result of other factors any time of life Can be the result of a disease injury or other condition bacterial meningitis Mumps Measles Viral infections Otitus media Noise exposure 01 16 19 2 Acquired Hearing Disorders Otitis Media Most common cause of conductive hearing loss in children Often causes 25 to 30 dB loss Intermittent and variable Research supports high correlation in chronic otitis media and speech language problems May require frequent medical management 01 16 19 3 Myringotomy Ear infection is result of eustachian tube swelling and not allowing drainage Tubes in the ear with history of multiple ear infections and speech delay Video of myringotomy http on aol com video learn about middle ear infections 114822081 01 16 19 4 Hearing Loss Mild moderate severe profound Temporary or permanent One ear or both Treatment Medication Surgery Hearing aid Cochlear implant 01 16 19 5 Location of damage Conductive Sensorineural Damage or blockage in Damage to cochlea or outer or middle ear Cochlea is still functioning so some sound information is carried to the brain Often a temporary loss as it can be treated medically or surgically the acoustic nerve Most common type of permanent hearing loss Can be treated effectively with amplification or implantable device 01 16 19 6 Causes of Conductive and Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Children Conductive Sensorineural Wax buildup Inflammation of ear Hereditary canal Malformations of the outer and middle ear Otitis media 01 16 19 Maternal illness during pregnancy STORCH infections Complicated birth process low birth weight hyperbilirubinemia intercranial hemorrhage Noise exposure Ototoxic drugs 7 Degree of Hearing Loss in Children Hearing loss in children is defined as an average threshold of greater than 15 dB adults are 25 dB dB is loudness or intensity of signal Standard is lower for children because they are in the process of learning speech and language and are not able to fill in the gaps of conversation 01 16 19 8 Auditory Processing Disorder Child has normal hearing Disorder caused by inefficient ineffective processing of auditory signal in the central nervous system Diagnosed by an audiologist and treated by a speech language pathologist 01 16 19 9 Ear Anatomy Review Name the Structure Protects the ear drum Connects to the opening of the inner ear Allows for drainage of fluid from the middle ear Protects the middle ear Carries nerve impulses from the cochlea to the brain Fluid in the cochlea Move sin response to movement of endolymph and talks with auditory nerve Work together to boost and transmit pressure to the inner ear 01 16 19 10 01 16 19 11 Hearing Screening Identify those at risk for hearing loss Conducted by an audiologist Speech language pathologist or school nurse Newborns Infants Toddlers Preschoolers who are at risk School age children Grades K 1 2 3 7 11 Adults every decade through age 50 and then at 3 year intervals 01 16 19 12 Goals of Hearing Assessment Identify any hearing loss Understand nature severity of loss Monitor an already identified loss 01 16 19 13 Terminology Frequency is the number of cycles per second of a sound wave Pitch Hertz Hz 01 16 19 14 Terminology Intensity or loudness is a measure of the magnitude or pressure of a sound wave decibels or dB 0 dB is the minimum level of sound needed to stimulate the human ear at a particular frequency Normal hearing at variety of frequencies Adults 0 25 dB Children 0 15 dB 01 16 19 15 Audiological Assessment 1 Case history 2 Physical examination of the ear 3 Pure tone audiometry 4 Speech audiometry 5 Immitance measures 01 16 19 16 Case History Nature of the problem Cause of the problem Medical history Family history related to hearing loss 01 16 19 17 Physical examination Examine the outer ear pinna for any malformation Pictures of various malformations http www ghorayeb com CongenitalEar html Otoscopic examination of the ear canal and ear drum video http www youtube com watch v iIbaq15t1L0 01 16 19 18 Physical examination Examine the outer ear pinna for any malformation http www ghorayeb com CongenitalEar html Otoscopic examination of the ear canal and ear drum http www youtube com watch v iIbaq15t1L0 01 16 19 19 Equipment used for hearing testing Audiometer tests sounds at different frequencies and intensities School and SLP screenings Soundproof booth 01 16 19 20 Pure Tone Hearing Test Single frequency pure tones are tested Threshold is obtained lowest level individual can reliably hear sound Pure tones may be introduced through air or bone conduction 01 16 19 21 Two Pathways of Sound Air conduction tested by introducing sounds through ear canal usually with headphones Bone conduction tested by introducing vibrations through bone behind the ear Sound bypasses middle ear and goes directly to cochlea 01 16 19 22 Two Pathways of Sound 01 16 19 23 Audiogram Graph used for plotting responses to a pure tone hearing test Frequency is plotted on horizontal axis Decibel level responses plotted on vertical axis Air conduction and bone conduction can be plotted 01 16 19 24 Speech Banana 01 16 19 25 Audiogram Normal Hearing 01 16 19 26 Disorders of Hearing Conductive hearing loss problem in the outer or middle ear Sensorineural loss problem with the transfer of sound to electrical energy cochlea and transmission of energy to the brain acoustic nerve 01 16 19 27 Conductive Hearing Loss Key Right AC O BC 01 16 19 Left X 28 Sensorineural Hearing Loss 01 16 19 29 Severity of Hearing Loss 01 16 19 30 Pure Tone Assessment 1 ABR newborns and uncooperative persons 2 Behavioral observation infants 3 Visual reinforcement toddlers 4 Conditioned play preschoolers 01 16 19 31 Auditory Brainstem Response Measures brain response to auditory stimuli through electrodes Useful in testing newborns or clients who cannot be tested for a variety of reasons 01 16 19 32 Behavioral Observation Response baby stops sucking when sound introduced Pediatric Assessment CD 01 16 19 33 Visual Reinforcements Audiometry Response child turns toward visual stimulus when hears sound 01 16 19 34 Conditioned Play Audiometry Response child conditioned to drop a toy in box some activity to indicate heard sound 01 16 19 35 Additional assessments 1 Immitance testing 1 Tympannometry 2 Acoustic reflex 2 Speech audiometry 1 Speech recognition threshold SRT 2 Word


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