UNT SPHS 2015 - 2 BB Biological foundations of speech and language F13(1) (36 pages)

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2 BB Biological foundations of speech and language F13(1)



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2 BB Biological foundations of speech and language F13(1)

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Pages:
36
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Sphs 2015 - Nat Comm Dis
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Biological Foundations of Speech Language Structures of Speech and Hearing 1 2 3 4 5 6 Respiratory System power source Phonatory System sound source Resonatory System perceptual changes Articulatory System turbulence Nervous system Auditory system Respiratory System Diaphragm large muscle at the base of the lungs that contracts to expand the lungs for inhalation Trachea tube of cartilage through which air moves in and out of the lungs Lungs supplies the air needed for speech http www youtube com watch v hc1YtXc 84A Phonatory System Larynx valve which opens and closes allowing air to enter and escape from the trachea Function of larynx Protect against aspiration Phonation Major Structures of the Larynx Cricoid Cartilage forms the base of the larynx Thyroid cartilage forms the front and sides of the larynx Vocal folds open close vibrate Arytenoid cartilages control opening and closing of the vocal folds Glottis opening between vocal folds Structures of the larynx How phonation voice occurs Vocal folds are open abducted during quiet breathing To produce voice the vocal folds come together adduct Pressure builds up below the closed vocal folds The build up of pressure causes vocal folds to vibrate Animation of phonation http vimeo com 13591762 Normal vocal fold http www entusa com normal larynx htm Vocal fold vibration Pitch speed of vibrations Pitch is measured in hertz Hz the number of vibrations per second Habitual pitch is the average pitch a person uses during speaking Size and mass of the vocal folds impact pitch Higher pitch thin stretched folds Lower pitch short thick folds Differences in Fundamental Frequency Men 125 Hz Women 225 Hz Young children 400 Hz Changes in intensity loudness of the voice Intensity the relative power or pressure of sound measured in decibels dB Determined by the degree of subglottic air pressure pressure below the closed vocal folds Increased intensity louder voice is achieved by more air moving out of the lungs and tighter closure of the vocal folds Relationship of respiration and phonation Sustain aaaah Run in place for 30 seconds now sustain aaaah Resonance System Vibration of air in oral cavities The structures of throat larynx mouth and nose can be modified to change the shape of the resonating chamber As structures move the shape of the resonating chamber is altered We perceive the change in the vibrations Nasal Resonance Velum or Soft palate moves to control airflow through nose Nasality resonance through nose sounds m n ing are nasal Hypernasality too much nasal resonance Denasality insufficient nasal resonance Articulatory System Articulators disrupt airflow and cause turbulance This results in the production of sounds or phonemes Articulatory Structures Tongue Lips Mandible Palate Teeth 3D Speech Review What are the four components of speech production What are the major structures of the respiratory system What happens when we breathe in out What is the major structure of the phonatory system What are its major parts How is voice produced What term represents the speed of vocal fold vibration Review What term represents the amplitude or movement of the vocal folds Thin quickly vibrating vocal folds result in Thick slower vibrating vocal folds result in A louder voice is the result of movement of the vocal folds What are the major structures of the resonance system Too much nasal resonance is Insufficient nasal resonance is What are the major articulators Nervous System Two divisions Central brain spinal cord Peripheral cranial nerves spinal nerves The Central Nervous System Interprets sensory information gathered by the peripheral nervous system Includes the brain and spinal cord Directly controls human communication OZ http www youtube com watch v nauLgZISozs Brain 6 minutes http www youtube com watch v 9UukcdU258A Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Brainstem Online activity The Brain Brainstem Developed first as brain evolved Controls primitive reflexes and basic autonomic functions Major structures include the medulla pons and the midbrain Damage to the medulla often results in paralysis and sensory deficits to the speech production structures The medulla controls the swallow reflex The Brain Cerebellum Lies behind the brain stem Regulates body posture balance and motor coordination Damage to the cerebellum results in ataxia a movement coordination disorder which can affect speech production The Brain The Cerebrum Most important part of the brain for communication Divided into the left and right hemisphere Corpus callosum carries information between hemispheres The cerebral hemispheres can be divided further into four lobes Cerebral lobes Occipital lobe Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Left hemisphere is language dominant hemisphere for most people Perisylvian region language dominant area Cerebral Lobes Occipital Lobe back part of the brain just above the cerebellum processes visual information Parietal Lobe primary area for processing sensory information reading writing and word finding problems may occur when the parietal lobe is damaged Cerebral Lobes Frontal Lobe controls motor movements anterior most part controls executive skills two important areas for speech production Motor cortex Broca s area left side only Parts of the Frontal Lobe Motor Cortex controls volitional movements of most of the body homunculus upside down man which maps the specific areas of control damage to this area will result in poor volitional control of speech a condition known as apraxia Motor homunculus http www youtube com watch v YQAAkSPMFfc Broca s area area of the brain adjacent to the motor cortex which controls expressive language patients with damage to this area will have difficulty expressing ideas verbally Temporal Lobe contains two important areas for communication left side primary auditory cortex receives sound impulses from the auditory nerve CN VIII and assigns basic recognition to those sounds Wernicke s area stores data that associates sounds speech with meaning Other important structures of the brain Protective Structures Skull Meninges Meningitis is inflammation of meninges Cerebrospinal fluid Peripheral Nervous System Cranial and spinal nerves Sends sensory information to the CNS Carries motor information from the CNS to the muscles Cranial nerves Enter and exit through the skull twelve pairs of nerves which are numbered according to the level which they exit the skull innervate muscles of the head and neck and some thoracic organs


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