UNT SPHS 2015 - 2 BB Biological foundations of speech and language F13(1) (36 pages)

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2 BB Biological foundations of speech and language F13(1)



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2 BB Biological foundations of speech and language F13(1)

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Pages:
36
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Sphs 2015 - Nat Comm Dis

Unformatted text preview:

Biological Foundations of Speech Language Structures of Speech and Hearing 1 2 3 4 5 6 Respiratory System power source Phonatory System sound source Resonatory System perceptual changes Articulatory System turbulence Nervous system Auditory system Respiratory System Diaphragm large muscle at the base of the lungs that contracts to expand the lungs for inhalation Trachea tube of cartilage through which air moves in and out of the lungs Lungs supplies the air needed for speech http www youtube com watch v hc1YtXc 84A Phonatory System Larynx valve which opens and closes allowing air to enter and escape from the trachea Function of larynx Protect against aspiration Phonation Major Structures of the Larynx Cricoid Cartilage forms the base of the larynx Thyroid cartilage forms the front and sides of the larynx Vocal folds open close vibrate Arytenoid cartilages control opening and closing of the vocal folds Glottis opening between vocal folds Structures of the larynx How phonation voice occurs Vocal folds are open abducted during quiet breathing To produce voice the vocal folds come together adduct Pressure builds up below the closed vocal folds The build up of pressure causes vocal folds to vibrate Animation of phonation http vimeo com 13591762 Normal vocal fold http www entusa com normal larynx htm Vocal fold vibration Pitch speed of vibrations Pitch is measured in hertz Hz the number of vibrations per second Habitual pitch is the average pitch a person uses during speaking Size and mass of the vocal folds impact pitch Higher pitch thin stretched folds Lower pitch short thick folds Differences in Fundamental Frequency Men 125 Hz Women 225 Hz Young children 400 Hz Changes in intensity loudness of the voice Intensity the relative power or pressure of sound measured in decibels dB Determined by the degree of subglottic air pressure pressure below the closed vocal folds Increased intensity louder voice is achieved by more air moving out of the lungs and tighter closure of



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