GSU NEUR 3000 - NEUR 3000 - Chapter 8 (34 pages)

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NEUR 3000 - Chapter 8



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NEUR 3000 - Chapter 8

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Pages:
34
School:
Georgia State University
Course:
Neur 3000 - Hon Principles of Neuroscience

Unformatted text preview:

THE CHEMICAL SENSES NEUR 3000 Dr Joseph J Normandin CHEMOSENSATION From the simplest of organisms to the amazing human the detection of chemicals in the environment in ubiquitous We will focus on the two familiar chemical senses taste smell but we must remember that there are chemical sensors within our body that are critical to our bodies function The sense of taste is called gustation and the sense of smell is called olfaction In both systems chemoreceptors transduce the presence of a chemical signal into an electrical signal GUSTATION The common idea of taste is surprisingly complicated How does that burger taste Juicy yummy smoky Our common experience of taste is actually combination of gustation olfaction and somatosensation A better way to describe this might be flavor Here we consider the chemical components of flavor transduced in the gustatory system or what a neuroscientist would call taste The five basic tastes Sweet Salty Bitter Sour Umami GUSTATION The chemistry of the 5 tastes and their adaptive value Sweet Sugars carbohydrates artificial sweeteners some proteins Signals the presence of a high calorie food source Salty Table salt NaCl Signals the presence of salts necessary for metabolism Bitter Caffeine medicine K Mg2 Signals the presence of a possible toxin Sour Acids Presence of food source or chemical needed for metabolism Umami Glutamate some amino acids and proteins Presence of a food source GUSTATION The organs of taste Chemoreceptors can be found on the tongue pharynx and epiglottis Tongue contains the largest abundance of chemoreceptors The tongue Papillae small round protrusions of varying morphology cover the tongue Each papilla can contain several hundred taste buds Each taste bud can contain up to 150 taste receptor cells Gustatory sensory neurons innervate the taste buds in apposition to taste receptor cells An individual taste bud tends to respond to a particular taste i e a salty taste bud though at high concentrations of a given



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