GSU NEUR 3000 - NEUR 3000 - Chapter 7 (24 pages)

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NEUR 3000 - Chapter 7



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NEUR 3000 - Chapter 7

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Pages:
24
School:
Georgia State University
Course:
Neur 3000 - Hon Principles of Neuroscience
Unformatted text preview:

THE STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM NEUR 3000 Dr Joseph J Normandin COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ANATOMICAL REFERENCE ANATOMICAL REFERENCE PROTECTING THE NERVOUS SYSTEM PROTECTING THE NERVOUS SYSTEM MAJOR DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM There are two major subdivisions of the nervous system The central nervous system CNS brain and spinal cord The peripheral nervous system PNS all the nerves of the body THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The peripheral nervous system consist of nerves bundles of axons and ganglia clusters of cell bodies and has three components Cranial nerves somatic nervous system Nerves of the head neck region Connected to the brain Spinal nerves somatic nervous system Nerves of the rest of the body Connected to spinal cord Autonomic nervous system Controls glands and internal organs THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Each component of the peripheral nervous system has both a motor and sensory pathways Sensory pathways travel from the body to the CNS Motor pathways travel from the CNS to muscles glands Ganglia nerves Ganglia collections of cell bodies Nerves bundles of axons in the same orientation THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM THE CRANIAL NERVES THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM SPINAL NERVES The spinal nerves 31 pairs Each nerve has two branches Sensory branch enters spinal cord via dorsal root Motor branch exits spinal cord via ventral root Named for the segment of spinal cord to which they are connected Cervical C1 C8 Thoracic T1 T12 Lumbar L1 L5 Sacral S1 S5 Coccygeal THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM The autonomic nervous system Originally thought to act independently of the brain Primarily peripheral with a central component Controls unconscious and visceral function Modulates breathing heart rate Modulates digestion Genital engorgement THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM The autonomic nervous system Three subdivisions Sympathetic nervous system Readies body for activity Parasympathetic nervous system Returns body to rest Enteric nervous system A neural network in the gut Innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system Has spontaneous activity THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord Important features of the central nervous system Gray white matter Gray matter cell bodies White matter axons often myelinated Nuclei tracts Nuclei discrete collections of cell bodies Tract a bundle of axons traveling in the same orientation THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM THE BRAIN The brain is the executive control center of the nervous system Comprised of cortex separated into lobes with gyri sulci and subcortical structures embedded deep in the brain Subcortical structures Often share much in common with other animals Important influences on all cortical function Origin of unconscious function Cortex Most recently evolved portion of the nervous system Complex cognition Neurons are arranged in cortical columns with distinct layers Each column serves as a unit to process information THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM THE BRAIN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM THE BRAIN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM THE BRAIN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM THE BRAIN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM THE BRAIN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM SPINAL CORD THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM SPINAL CORD ANY QUESTIONS NEUR 3000 Dr Joseph J Normandin


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