GSU NEUR 3000 - NEUR 3000 - Chapter 11 (40 pages)

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NEUR 3000 - Chapter 11



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NEUR 3000 - Chapter 11

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Pages:
40
School:
Georgia State University
Course:
Neur 3000 - Hon Principles of Neuroscience

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THE AUDITORY AND VESTIBULAR SYSTEM NEUR 3000 Dr Joseph J Normandin AUDITION SOUND Audition is hearing Sound is pressure waves in the air AUDITION SOUND We can measure sound by its intensity in decibels dB or its frequency in Hertz Hz We can hear sounds in the range of 20 Hz to 20 000 Hz What do different frequencies sound like The perception of frequency is called pitch and the perception of intensity is loudness AUDITORY STRUCTURES The outer ear consists of the disc shaped pinna and an auditory canal The pinna helps to collect sound waves and can also modify sound The human pinna enhances the reception of sounds from 2000 5000 Hz a range important for speech perception Pinnae are unique to mammals and there is a great diversity in shape related to the environments each species evolved in Sound waves travel through the ear canal to the middle ear AUDITORY STRUCTURES AUDITORY STRUCTURES Through a series of structures the middle ear amplifies sound The tympanic membrane eardrum vibrates with each sound wave The ossicles malleus incus and stapes transmit the vibration to the oval window of the cochlea in the inner ear The ossicles amplify sound waves in order to be able to affect the fluid filled cochlea AUDITORY STRUCTURES AUDITORY STRUCTURES The inner ear detects sound waves The cochlea of the inner ear is a coiled fluid filled structure The oval window is a membrane covered opening in the cochlea that is connected to the stapes Sounds causes the stapes to push and pull on the oval window creating waves of mechanical energy in the fluidfilled cochlea The organ of Corti in the cochlea contains the sensory receptors for sounds hair cells Small muscles in the inner ear dampen sounds via the attenuation reflex AUDITORY STRUCTURES AUDITORY STRUCTURES AUDITORY STRUCTURES The scala tympani and scala vestibuli are continuous with one another The fluid inside is called perilymph Similar to cerebrospinal fluid Low K and high Na The fluid in the scala media is called endolymph



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