UNT PHIL 2400 - Final Exam Study Guide (10 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Definitions of over 60 terms that will be on the final exam.

Study Guide
University of North Texas
Phil 2400 - Reli & Ameri Soc
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PHIL 2400 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide 1 Establishment Clause a Statements in first amendment of the Bill of Right prohibiting the United States Congress from passing legislation respecting an establishment of religion 2 Free Exercise Clause a Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting thereof 3 Religion in the Constitution aside from the First Amendment 4 Pluralism a The free existence of many faiths b Separate religions exist side by side and maintain their differences 5 Post pluralism a The new combinations that occur as people borrow religious ideas and practices from one another b Religions consciously or unconsciously borrow from one another and combine ideas and practices 6 The 4 C s a Creeds explanations about the meaning of human life i Catholicism God is the creator of the universe and is largely unreachable original sin Jesus is God s son Mary is the mother of Jesus ii Protestantism personal connection with God priesthood of all Jesus is the savior Grace is a gift from God belief in Jesus and God is most important b Codes rules that govern everyday behavior i Catholicism following the 7 Sacraments keeping up with the Pope ii Protestantism personal connection with God is possible announcing belief c Cultuses rituals to act out the understandings expressed in creeds and codes i Catholicism communion baptism eucharist etc going to mass every Sunday morning ii Protestantism acts out some of the sacraments prayer as a group having massive conversion meetings to lead people to belief in God d Communities groups of people either formally or informally bound together by the creed code and cultus they share i Catholicism organized liturgy Pope bishops etc creates clustered groups of Catholics due to Sunday morning mass at the church ii Protestantism began to emphasis social justice and brought many different denominations of Protestants together to improve conditions revival meetings 7 Cantwell v Connecticut 194 a Cantwell and his sons were arrested after playing a phonograph asking for money to two roman catholic men b Charged with violating the Connecticut law requiring solicitors to obtain a certificate before soliciting funds from the public and inciting a common law breach of the peace c Cantwell s claimed that the government did not have the right to determine whether they were participating in a religion d Congress ruled for the Connecticut law 8 Everson v Ewing Township 1947 a First case that applied the establishment clause to state law b New Jersey taxpayer sued the school system for reimbursing parents of students taking public transportation to private religious schools c Under 1st amendment laws shouldn t use tax money to support religion d Supreme court ruled in favor of the reimbursement because public transportation or lack thereof was a matter of safety for the children e Private schools in area were mainly catholic but reimbursement would have applied to other religious schools 9 Christian Privilege a The idea that Christians have certain privileges in political and social life 10 Lemon Test a Contained three statutes for legislation concerning religion b 1 the statue must not result in an excessive government entanglement with religious affairs c 2 the statue must not advance or inhibit religious practice legislative s primary effect should remain neutral to any particular religion d 3 the statute must have a secular legislative purpose can t encourage excessive entanglement 11 Native American Sacred land a Had connections with the land and living things as if they were relatives of their family 12 American Indian Religious Freedom Act 1978 a Congress resolved that it shall be the policy of the United States to protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe express and exercise their traditional religions 13 Hebrew Bible a Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Adam Abraham Moses b Early on saw the close relationships between fertility of land and crops and reproductively of men and women c But then changed ideas to be more focused on time than space 14 Yom Kippur a 10 days after the Jewish New Year b Jews fast do penance and confess what they feel to be sinful nature before God 15 Sacrament and sacraments a Little s is a sacred sign person place object or action that is regarded as holy a place where a divine world is experienced as breaking into the human one a bridge between worlds 16 Bishop s Letter on the Economy a vague advice to American political system to assist all of its citizens and help better working conditions 17 Social Gospel movement a 1880 1914 b Happened in response to political social challenges in America c Working conditions were terrible d Saw the true task of Christians as to rescue the poor and creating political economic and social order e Reformists worked to change how employers treated and paid employers 18 Elect a In the Calvinist faith they were people who were predestined to be a part of salvation and there was no way to determine who they were except the sign that elects were possessed a righteous and reformed pattern of living b This required righteousness caused believers behave more righteously to show that they could be a part of the elect 19 Ecumenical Movement a Developed due to absence of religious symbols in public and growing pluralism in private sphere b Reunification of separated churches 20 Evangelism a Idea that the word of the Bible should be spread to everyone b Had its roots in ideas such as the Great Commission Americans are chosen Revivalism and Millennialism 21 The Dover Case a Tammy Kitzmiller challenged the curricula requirement of the Dover Area School District to teach intelligent design in biology classes using the alternative textbook Of Pandas and People b Ruled teaching intelligent design as an alternative to Evolution in biology classrooms as unconstitutional 22 Intelligent Design a Philosophically oriented theory of the beginning of life b Focuses on theories of life being irreducibly complex 23 Creationism a Theory that teaches the direct creation of the universe and the separate creation of humans and apes b Includes literal readings of the book of Genesis c Has no empirical data and offers no future prospects 24 Scientific theory a Well researched and supported explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is developed through the scientific method and then tested repeatedly through experimentation

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