UNT MGMT 3720 - Organizational change and stress management (17 pages)

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Organizational change and stress management

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Organizational change and stress management


Change in the workplace, stress in the workplace

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of North Texas
Mgmt 3720 - Organization Behavior
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MGMT 3720 Lecture 11 Outline of Last Lecture Chapter 17 Human resource policies and practices I Substantive selection methods II Contingent selection III Four main types of training IV Informal training methods V On the job and off the job training VI Methods of performance evaluation VII How managers can improve performance evaluations VIII Leadership role in HR organizations Outline of Current Lecture Chapter 18 Organizational change and stress management I II III IV V VI VII Planned and unplanned changes Sources of resistance to change Four main approaches to managing change Creating a culture for change Potential sources of stress Consequences of stress Managing stress Current Lecture Forces for change 1 Nature of the workforce 2 Technology These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute 3 4 5 6 Economic shocks Competition Social Trends World politics Examples of forces of change Cultural diversity Aging population Increased immigration and outsourcing Faster cheaper mobile devices Growth of social network sites Deciphering of human genetic code Rise and fall of global housing market Financial sector collapse Global recession Global competitors Mergers and consolidations Increased government regulation of commerce Increased environmental awareness Liberalization of attitudes toward gay lesbian and transgender employees More multitasking and connectivity Rising health care costs Negative social attitude toward business and executives Opening of markets in China Change Change involves making something different Planned change when change is an intentional goal oriented activity Two goals of planned change 1 Improve the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment 2 Change employee behavior Change agents those responsible for managing change activities Change agents can be managers employees of the organization or outside consultants Many change agents fail because of organizational resistance to change Sources of resistance to change Change isn t always welcome We often see change as threatening These reactions can sap the organization of vital energy when it is most needed Resistance to change can be positive if it leads to open discussion and debate 5 Individual sources of resistance to change 1 Habits To cope with life s complexities we rely on habits or programmed responses But when confronted with change this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance 2 Security People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety 3 Economic factors Changes in job tasks or established work routines can arouse economic fears if people are concerned that they won t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards especially when pay is closely tied to productivity 4 Fear of the unknown Change can lead to ambiguity and feelings of uncertainty 5 Selective information processing People are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact They hear what they want to hear and they ignore information that challenges the world they ve created 5 major sources of organizational resistance to change 1 Inertia Organizations have built in mechanisms to produce stability this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustainability 2 Limited focus of change Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems Changing one affects the others 3 Group inertia Group norms may act as a constraint 4 Threat to expertise Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups 5 Threat to established power relationships Redistribution of decision making authority can threaten long established power relationships Overcoming Resistance to Change 1 Education and communication resistance to change can be reduced through communicating and educating to help employees see the logic of a change It fights the effects of misinformation and poor communication if employees receive the full facts and clear up misunderstandings resistance should subside It s better to communicate changes or layoffs than to keep it a secret The downside is that good people might leave when they hear of this 2 Participation it s difficult for people to resist a change decision in which they participated Prior to making a change those opposed can be brought into the decision process assuming they have the expertise to make a meaningful contribution This creates the potential for a poor solution and great time consumption 3 Building support and commitment When employees fear and anxiety are high counseling and therapy new skills training or a short paid leave of absence may facilitate adjustment When managers or employees have low emotional commitment to change they favor the status quo and resist it So firing up employees can also help them emotionally commit to the change rather than embrace the status quo 4 Develop positive relationships People are more willing to accept changes if they trust the managers implementing them Research suggests that if managers are able to facilitate positive relationships they may be able to overcome resistance to change even among those who ordinarily don t like changes 5 Implementing changes fairly Procedural fairness is especially important when employees perceive an outcome as negative so it s crucial that employees see the reason for the change and perceive its implementation as consistent and fair 6 Manipulation and cooptation Manipulation refers to covert influence attempts twisting and distorting facts to make them appear more attractive withholding undesirable information and creating false rumors to get employees to accept a change Cooptation is a form of both manipulation and participation It seeks to buy off the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role in the change decision Both manipulation and cooptation are relatively inexpensive and easy ways to gain support The tactics can backfire if the targets become aware that they are being tricked or used This sometimes gives people the impression of participating in the decision process when in reality they aren t 7 Selecting people who accept change Research suggests the ability to easily accept and adapt to change is related to personality some people simply have more positive attitudes about change than others In

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