UGA BIOL 1108 - EXAM 5 (20 pages)

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EXAM 5



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EXAM 5

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Pages:
20
School:
University of Georgia
Course:
Biol 1108 - Principles Bio Ii
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BIOL 1108 Edition 1nd Exam 1 Study Guide Lectures 20 25 Lecture 20 November 2 Biosphere and Abiotic Conditions Learning Objectives Understand why we study organisms in relation to their environments Understand the influence of abiotic conditions on things such as the distribution of species Consider similarities and differences among terrestrial and aquatic biomes In The News Do we choose our friends because they share our genes People may be similar to one another through sharing smells in different environments Starbucks Effect People tend to be friends with others that have different immune systems in order to gain an extra covering of protection Friends tend to share the same genetic complexion to our 4th cousins Homophily tendency to interact with individuals similar to self o Genetic makeup o There are 4 hypotheses for hemophilic friends Geographic proximity Choose friends of similar genotypes Choose particular environments Be chosen by third parties or selected in specific environments Heterophily tendency to interact with individuals dissimilar to self In a hunter gatherer group the number of social ties and gifts given was more than expected by random chance o Characteristics that hunter gatherer campmates and gift givers receivers had in common and variation in cooperation Relationship of gut microbes to mammal diet taxonomic group and geographic location provenance Friends had a higher number of genes in common and fewer numbers of genes that were opposite of their friends o Genetic similarities and differences Similar Olfactory Linoleic acid metabolism o In gene expression Different Immune system process ECOLOGY As an organism what constitutes your world the current environment Why do we study organisms relative to their environments Ecology the study of organisms at their environment o Ecology tends to be studied at different levels Organism ecology Population ecology Communities ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE What affects species distributions and abundance globally What is o Species distribution Space between individuals Has different forms Clumps Uniformly Random o Species abundance Number of organisms per an area How does species distribution and abundance vary locally Globally o Dependence on resources o Climate and weather What factors are contributing to these species distribution patterns o Elevation o Latitude more species and higher diversity loser to the equator than at the poles o Precipitation BIOMES Areas of the Earth characterized by similar plant communities and physical environments Biomes vary in the average season patterns climate of temperature and precipitation they experience Explain diverse biomes by looking at the average annual temperature and the average annual precipitation which have influences on the vegetation CLIMATE VS WEATHER What is the difference between climate and weather o Climate the average temperature precipitation annually or monthly o Weather day to day changes in temperature and precipitation in an environment What drives Earth s climates o Solar radiation the average solar radiation maps for summer and winter Winter in the Northern Hemisphere has less solar radiation than the Southern Hemisphere Maximum solar radiation is NOT at the equator due to Earth s tilt o Earth s position to the sun tilt rotation revolution Earth s inclination 23 5 degree tilt causes seasonal changes in the latitude where the solar input is most intense Spring Equinox peak radiation on equator Summer Solstice peak radiation north of the equator Fall Equinox peak radiation on equator Winter Solstice peak radiation south of equator The net effect it varies between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn o Atmospheric gases H2O CO2 CH4 Global air circulation and precipitation patterns Descending dry air absorbs moisture Ascending moist air releases moisture Why is the maximum not at the equator o Earth s tilt Seasonal patterns in solar radiation o Earth s inclination causes seasonal changes in the latitude where solar input in most intense Global air circulation and precipitation patterns o Create circular patterns of wind picking up moisture from the Earth and back up to the atmosphere as rain o Cold and warm currents affect the amount of nutrients in the water o Cold water keeps land areas cooler whereas warmer water near the coasts allow lands to have hotter climates Warm water is the most prolific more life with coral reefs Aquatic waters included rivers and many smaller self contained lakes o Together these patterns create the different biomes of the Earth TOPHAT QUESTION Together warm water in the tropics and cold water from the northern latitudes cause which of the following A Global rainfall patterns B Circular flow of ocean currents C Global trade winds D Large changes in coastal climate Lecture 21 November 12 Behavioral Ecology Learning Objectives Distinguish proximate and ultimate causation for behaviors Relate the 4 types of communication animals use to their environments Relate behaviors to survival and reproduction within organisms environments Describe how altruism could be selfish Consider ways dispersal affects survival and reproduction DEFINITIONS Ecology from the Greek oikos home and logos to study Behavior an animal s responses to external stimuli Behavioral ecology the study of how animals respond to environmental stimuli abiotic and biotic o Evolved by natural selection including morphological and physiological adaptations that correlate to behavior Proximate causation factors how the behavior occurs including the stimulus mechanical responses development of the behavior o Ex Genes turning off and on Ultimate causation factors why the behavior evolved its functional significance to survival and or reproduction Fixed Action Pattern a sequence of unlearned acts directly linked to a simple stimulus unchageable ANIMAL SIGNS AND COMMUNICATION Signal stimulus from one animal to another Communication signal transmission and signal reception when the signal is received and is responded 4 types of animal communication o Chemical o Auditory o Visual o Tactile Migration o Long distance change o Find way sun location and circadian clock north star position Earth s magnetic field affecting either photoreceptors of eye or bits of magnetite in some animals Circannual rhythm behavioral rhythm linked to yearly cycle sometimes based on tides or daylight and darkness TOPHAT QUESTION Many moth species are active


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