TAMU NUTR 211 - Final Exam Study Guide (12 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Study Guide
Texas A&M University
Nutr 211 - Scientific Prin Of Foods
Scientific Prin Of Foods Documents
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NUTR 211 Final Exam Review New Information for Final Flour Mixtures A composition 1 dry ingredients a flour b sugar sometimes considered wet c leavening agents d salt e Herbs and spices 2 wet ingredients a water b milk c fat d eggs 3 types and proportions determine different sensory characteristics in various products B flours 1 provide structure texture and flavor 2 gelatinized starch strengthens the crumb a soft interior part of the bread b created by gelatinization of starch in flour c coagulation of proteins in flour d characterized by number and size of air cells e fine crumb small uniform air bubbles f coarse crumb large irregular air cells 3 nut flours and coconut flours are more bulk flours and you would need something else to provide the starch characteristics C starch 1 wheat flour is 80 starch 2 starch liquid heat gelatinization of starch a hydrated starch at ideal temperature swells starch granule bursts thickens mixture b once all starch granules have burst solid mass 3 it is partially hydrolyzed by amylases present in flours a starch dextrins malt and glucose b these shorter carbohydrate fragments impart sweetness crust color fermentation improvement D gluten 1 class of storage proteins prolamins in wheat rye barley and oats a wheat gliadin also glutelins aka glutenin b rye secalin c barley hordein d oats avenin 2 contributes to the firming of flour mixtures 3 ability to rise related to amount of gluten in flour 4 water soluble and insoluble protein fractions in flour a water insoluble are gliadin and glutenin b gluten ball wash away water soluble proteins and starch 5 gliadin glutenin water gluten 6 gluten gives ability to expand with inner pressure from leavening gases 7 kneading stretching and folding the dough forms pockets that are stretched when gases expand 8 when heated proteins coagulate 9 gluten formation a hydration gliadin glutenin form gluten in presence of water b how does protein content of flour affect water required Higher protein flour requires more water c stirring agitating and kneading facilitate gluten formation d proteins in flour wrapped around starch molecules water and agitation allow proteins to unwind and attach to each other and enhance process E wheat flour 1 soft wheat a cakes b pastries c less protein more starch 2 hard wheat a yeast breads b more protein less starch 3 whole wheat flour a aka graham flour b whole wheat kernel c bran cuts gluten strands negatively impacts volume d refrigerate freeze to prevent oxidative rancidity 4 white flour a bread flour 12 14 hard wheat used in production of yeast breads b all purpose flour 11 less protein than bread flour blend of hard and soft breads cakes pastry c pastry flour 9 soft wheat pastries cakes rich yeast dough quick breads d cake flour 8 fine grain smooth textured cakes bleached to improve color and baking quality F leavening agents 1 major leavening gasses air steam carbon dioxide 2 relative leavening power carbon dioxide steam air a air incorporated into flour mixtures by beating folding and creaming techniques b steam liquid or ingredients like egg whites high liquid to flour ratio and high baking temp to produce sufficient steam ex popovers P te choux choux paste 3 carbon dioxide a yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae b ferment sugar into carbon dioxide and ethanol c enzymes catalyze fermentation d starch hydrolyzed by amylase into maltose e maltase hydrolyzes maltose into glucose f baking soda sodium bicarbonate without acid produces sodium bicarbonate which has a yellow color and a bittery soapy flavor acid prevents formation of washing soda used in baking with acid ingredients buttermilk molasses brown sugar honey citrus fruit juices applesauce vinegar cocoa and chocolate g baking powder baking soda acid ex cream of tartar h baking powder liquid CO2 i single acting produce CO2 once liquid added wait to long reduce leavening j double acting in addition to fast acting acid ingredient another acid that reacts when heated is part of baking powder mix k troubleshooting l too much leavening baked product falls low volume coarse texture m too little leavening compact heavy product G sugar in flour mixtures 1 sweetens 2 browns 3 tenderizes interferes with gluten development 4 leavens a feeds yeast b adds air via creaming 5 increases coagulation temperatures of proteins and gelatinization temperature of starch a more time for gluten stretch increases volume 6 troubleshooting a too much sugar dry gritty doesn t brown caved in coarser gummy b too little sugar flat dry bland bitter dense inhibited browning less tender H fat in flour mixtures 1 interferes with gluten formation by shortening strands of gluten tenderizes 2 shortening power of fats a lard hydrogenated fats butter oils b presence of emulsifiers mono and di glycerides fat dispersed more evenly increased volume in cakes with fine texture 3 fat in leavening a plastic fats trap air bubbles when creamed with sugar 4 troubleshooting a too much fat weakens structure decreases volume b too little fat tougher crumb I Eggs in flour mixtures 1 incorporates air into batter 2 structure from coagulated proteins 3 leavening from water 4 troubleshooting a too much egg tough rubbery texture b too little egg decreased volume reduced structural strength J liquid in flour mixtures 1 hydrates starch for gelatinization and gliaden and glutenin for gluten formation 2 activates baking soda powder 3 rehydrates yeast 4 troubleshooting a too much liquid decreased volume too moist b too little liquid dry texture decreased volume K salt in flour mixtures 1 flavor 2 firms dough a adjusts swelling capacity of gluten prevents over hydration 3 improves texture 4 controls yeast growth a without fermentation would be too rapid L high altitude baking 1 lowers boiling point of liquids more water lost during baking via evaporation 2 reduces atmospheric pressure can over expand and collapse before set 3 adaptation a use less leavening fat sugar b use more liquid and flour c bake at higher temps to set structure quickly Quick Breads A goal is tender crumb 1 mix only dry ingredients B batter vs dough characterized by ratio of dry to wet ingredients 1 pour batter thinner less flour 1 1 2 drop batter more flour than pour batter 2 1 3 dough more flour than drop batter brief kneading 3 1 a avoid over kneading limit to 10 strokes produces too much gluten dense and heavy texture C pans usually greased filled 2 3 full baked 350 450 degrees F toothpick test D muffin method of

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