UT Arlington BIOL 3322 - Final Exam Study Guide (16 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


final exam review chapters 1 - origins of brain and behavior 2 - nervous system structure 3 cells of nervous system 4 electrical transmission 5 chemical signaling 6 drugs and hormones 7 neuroscience methods 8 neurodevelopment 9 vision 10 audition 11 motor 12 motivation and emotion 14 learning and memory 16 neurological disorders

Study Guide
University of Texas at Arlington
Biol 3322 - Brain and Behavior
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BIOL 3322 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 1 review Simple behavior NS narrow range of behavior Complex behavior NS wider rand of behavior Aristotle mentalism Descartes actions governed by either mind spirit and psychological or controlled by body biologically Darwin trait is adapted if it increases chance of survival it is passed on Age of the earth o Forms of life 3 5 bya o Brain cells 700mya o First brain 250 mya o Human like brain 6mya o Modern human brain 200 000 yrs ago 5 kingdoms monera Protista plantae fungi Animalia Chordate NS bilateral segmented brain and SC encased in cartilage bone crossed organization SC is behind the heart and gut Behavior is related to cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum size Chapter 2 review CNS brain is encased by the skull the SC is encased by vertebrae PNS neurons and nerve processes outside of CNS o Sensory connections to receptors in the skin afferent o Motor connection to body muscles outgoing efferent o Sensory and motor connections to internal body organs Meninges 3 layers of protective tissue dura mater arachnoid layer and pia mater CSF cerebrospinal fluid surrounds the meningitis Neurons Glial cells Several axon fibers running together form a nerve when outside the CNS or a tract w in the CNS Our evolutionary history our developmental history and our own personal history are integrated at the various anatomical and functional levels of the NS Spinal reflex can act independently of the brain hard to prevent brain cannot inhibit Brain stem hindbrain midbrain diencephalon hypothalamus produce movement and creates a sensory world tectum and tegmentum Forebrain neocortex basal ganglia limbic system Cytoarchitectonic map cortical layers motor cortex and sensory cortex Basal ganglia caudate nucleus putamen and globus pallidus Limbic system amygdala hippocampus and cingulate cortex SNS somatic nervous system monitored and controlled by the CNS Cranial nerves by the brain The spinal nerves by the spinal cord segments Cranial nerves o Olfactory o Optic o Oculomotor o Trochlear o Trigeminal o Abducens o Facial o Auditory vestibular o Glossopharyngeal o Vafus o Spinal accessory o Hypoglossal Dermatome area of the skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single SC dorsal root Ten principles o NS produces movement w in a perceptual world the brain creates o The details of NS functioning are constantly changing an attribute called neuroplasticity o Many of the brains circuits are crossed o CNS functions on multiple levels o Hierarchical and parallel brain system organizations o Sensory and motor divisions exist throughout the NS o Sensory input to the brain is divided for object recognition and motor control o Functions in the brain are both localized and distributed o NS works by juxtaposing excitation and inhibition Chapter 3 review Cells of the nervous system neurons and glial cells Neuron dendrites cell body or soma axon o Dendritic spines axon hillock axon collaterals teleodendria terminal button synapse Information processing sensory neurons interneurons project to motor neurons and motor neurons project to muscles of the body Glial cells o Ependymal cell o Astrocyte o Microglia o Oligodendroglia o Schwann cell Crossing the cell membrane channels gates pumps Autosomes pairs 1 22 Sex chromosomes pair 23 Genetic mutations positive neutral or negative most Tay Sachs disease 2 copies required to exhibit trait Huntington Chorea only one copy required to exhibit trait Down syndrome Chapter 4 review Galvani electrical stimulation Fritsch and Hitzig electrical stimulation of the neocortex causes movement arms and legs Bartholow first report of human brain stimulation Caton first to attempt to measure electrical currents of the brain using a voltmeter and electrodes on the skull Electroencephalogram electrical brain graph that records electrical activity through the skull or from the brain and represents graded potentials of many neurons Von Helmholtz flow of info in the NS is too slow to be a flow of electricity The wave travels along an axon not the charge Neurons can convey info as a wave induced by stimulation on the cell body traveling down the axon to its terminal voltmeter detects Oscilloscope measuring a neurons electrical activity Ions diffuse down their concentration and voltage gradients until the water in the left compartment is in equilibrium Protein molecules embedded in a cell membrane form channels that act as pores to allow certain kinds of ions to pass through the membrane opposite charges attract Equilibrium efflux of chloride ions down the chloride concentration gradient is counteracted by the influx inward flow of chloride ions down the chloride voltage gradient Concentration gradient voltage gradient Resting potential electrical chg across a resting membrane creates a stor of potential energy Na Cl K and large proteins Graded potential hyperpolarization depolarization Action potential Threshold Voltage sensitive ion channels Salutatory conduction EPSP excitatory postsynaptic potential IPSP inhibitory postsynaptic potential Temporal summation pulses that occur at approximately the same time on the membrane are summed Spatial summation pulses that occur at approximately the same location on a membrane are summed Receive info about the world through bodily sensations auditory visual chemical Ion channels initiate the chain of events that produces a nerveimpulse Motor neurons end plate acetylcholine transmitter sensitive channel receptors blocked by antibodies result in myasthenia gravis Chapter 5 review Structure of synapses o Synaptic vesicle o Synaptic cleft o Chemical synapse o Presynaptic membrane o Postsynaptic membrane o Storage granule 4 steps of neurotransmission o Synthesis and storage axon and cell body o Neurotransmitter release Ca and calmodulin o Receptor site activation transmitter activated receptors receptor site activation autoreceptors and quantum o Deactivation of the neurotransmitter diffusion degradation reuptake and glial cells o Neurotransmitters variations and no one to one relationship between a neurotransmitter and a single behavior o Criteria for identifying a neurotransmitter Synthesized and present in a neuron Produce response in target cell Same receptor action with chemical experimental Removal mechanism o 3 classes of neurotransmitters Small molecule transmitters quick acting synthesized from dietary nutrients ready for use in axon terminals Ach Amines DA NE EP 5 HT Amino acids Glu GABA

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