ECU BIOL 1060 - Exam 4 Study Guide (8 pages)

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Exam 4 Study Guide

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Exam 4 Study Guide


BIOL 1060 study guide for unit 4 test! Review on all chapters for the upcoming test!

Study Guide
East Carolina University
Biol 1060 - Environmental Biology
Environmental Biology Documents
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BIOL 1060 1st Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Air pollution primary and secondary Primary air pollutants Chemicals or particles directly released in air Secondary air pollutants Chemicals and particles that are formed by reaction of other chemicals or aerosols in the atmosphere Ozone O3 Photochemical Secondary pollutants facilitated by sunlight Primary air pollutants are chemicals or particles that are directly emitted from identifiable sources The elemental mercury released by combustion and volcanic eruptions is an example of a primary air pollutant Other primary pollutants include the carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide that are released when fossil fuels burn and the chlorofluorocarbons CFCs that are released from various industrial processes Secondary air pollutants are chemicals or particles that are produced in the atmosphere as a result of reactions among chemicals or aerosols The ozone O3 that accumulates in city air during the daytime is a secondary pollutant Secondary pollutants whose formation is facilitated by sunlight are called photochemicals or photochemical aerosols Types of pollutants that harm human health Pollution in troposphere Three types with greatest impact on humans ecosystems Acid deposition Acid rain snow fog Heavy metal pollution Mercury lead from fossil fuels Smog Industrial photochemical Indoor air pollution Indoor air pollution Combustion by products Carbon monoxide nitrogen and sulfur oxides VOCs particulate matter BIOL 1060 1st Edition Indoor burning Secondhand smoke Indoor air pollution in the developing world Comes from burning wood charcoal dung crop wastes Homes have little to no ventilation Fuel burning pollution causes an estimated 1 6 million deaths per year Soot and carbon monoxide Indoor Pollution Construction materials Emit many volatile organic compounds VOCs Paints adhesives synthetic fabrics wood preservatives Asbestos Fibrous material for heat fire proofing Breathing fibers leads to lung disease cancer Banned in 1973 Many materials used in the construction of residential and commercial buildings emit pollutants that pose significant risks to human health Adhesives synthetic fabrics paints wood preservatives and insulating materials are all sources of indoor pollutants Formaldehyde HCHO volatile organic compounds and asbestos are among the most important indoor pollutants derived from building materials Sometimes the pollutants in a building will impact the health of so many people that the buildings is said to have sick building syndrome Pesticides Many pesticides of the past now banned Many stored in fatty tissues in body bioaccumulation DDT chlordane pentachlorophenol May lead to nervous and digestive system issues We use a wide range of toxic chemicals in our homes and other buildings to control unwanted insects rodents molds and bacteria If misapplied these chemicals may affect our health Pesticides are especially hazardous to vulnerable populations such as small children and the elderly Sick building syndrome a sickness produced by indoor pollution with an unidentifiable specific cause VOCs bacteria fungi mold BIOL 1060 1st Edition US SO2 Emissions Emissions of SO2 in the United States have been declining since 1970 but the implementation of the sulfur cap and trade program set up by the 1990 Clean Air Act has caused the decline to accelerate Declining CFC Emissions Up to the 1987 Montreal Protocol global emissions of CFCs were increasing Countries and industries responded quickly to the protocol s mandates and emissions declined by 80 Acid precipitation Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions react with water vapor in the atmosphere and form acids that return to the surface as either dry or wet deposition Declining Aquatic Animal Populations BIOL 1060 1st Edition Thin shelled eggs prevent bird reproduction Calcium is unavailable in acidic soil Nutrients are leached from topsoil Metal ions aluminum zinc etc are converted into soluble forms that pollute water Damages agricultural crops Affects surface water and kills fish Widespread tree mortality Erodes stone buildings corrodes cars erases writing on tombstones Reducing air pollution Earth s atmosphere ozone layer composition ozone thinning Tropospheric Ozone Man made pollutant in the lower atmosphere Component of photochemical smog BIOL 1060 1st Edition Stratospheric Ozone Essential component that screens out UV radiation in the upper atmosphere Man made pollutants ex CFCs can destroy it Ozone Depletion over the Antarctic The area of depleted stratospheric ozone known as the Antarctic ozone hole blue purple is monitored each year by satellite Although CFC emissions have declined significantly the long residence time of these chemicals means that this hole has not diminished in size Ozone Destruction In the stratosphere ultraviolet light from the sun causes chlorine atoms to separate from CFCs These atoms catalyze the conversion of O 3 to O2 In the process chlorine atoms are continually regenerated Effects of Ozone Depletion Higher levels of UV radiation hitting the earth Eye cataracts Skin cancer right Weakened immunity May disrupt ecosystems May damage crops and forests Recovery of Ozone Layer Montreal Protocol 1987 Reduction of CFCs Started using HCFCs greenhouse gas Satellite pictures in 2000 indicated that ozone layer was recovering Full recovery will not occur until 2050 ENSO El Ni o Southern Oscillation Changes in ocean currents Alter weather patterns Albedo The reflectance of solar energy off earth s surface BIOL 1060 1st Edition Dark colors low albedo Forests and ocean Light colors high albedo Ice caps Proxy indicators for past climate on earth Proxy indicators indirect evidence that serve as substitutes for direct measurements Shed light on past climate Trapped bubbles in ice cores show atmospheric composition greenhouse gas concentration temperature trends snowfall solar activity and frequency of fires Clues about past climate conditions are obtained from proxy indicators a proxy is a substitute which are indirect forms of evidence that can be used to infer climate Isotopic Geochemical Studies The study of rock isotopic ratios ice core bubbles deep sea sediments etc Dendochronology the study of tree rings Pollen Distribution the study of plant types and prevalence from pollen found in sediments ice rocks caves etc Lake Varves like dendochronology but with lake sediments a varve is an annual layer of mud in the sediment Coral Bed Rings Fossils Studies of geological

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